Screwed Gamers Homepage

Welcome, Guest
You have to register before you can post on our site.



Search Forums

(Advanced Search)

Forum Statistics
» Members: 294
» Latest member: Hormone expert
» Forum threads: 679
» Forum posts: 1,942

Full Statistics

Online Users
There are currently 64 online users.
» 0 Member(s) | 64 Guest(s)

Latest Threads
Biblical meaning
Forum: Welcomes and Introductions
Last Post: axied12
08-23-2023, 10:44 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 160
Creed perfume samples
Forum: Welcomes and Introductions
Last Post: axied12
07-18-2023, 12:57 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 236
The Track Day Mini Games
Forum: Social Nights and One-off Events
Last Post: Woebegone6
12-28-2022, 08:49 AM
» Replies: 1
» Views: 7,191
Selecting pipe and piping...
Forum: FPS and Shooters
Last Post: f244G
10-09-2021, 06:20 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 1,573
PVC vs. Thermoplastic Rub...
Forum: FPS and Shooters
Last Post: D133H
10-08-2021, 08:15 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 1,267
Absolute Bathroom Necessi...
Forum: FPS and Shooters
Last Post: D133H
10-08-2021, 08:12 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 1,265
Choosing Stainless Steel ...
Forum: FPS and Shooters
Last Post: D133H
10-08-2021, 08:10 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 1,235
The Rising Popularity of ...
Forum: FPS and Shooters
Last Post: D133H
10-08-2021, 08:08 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 1,238
Pet Food: The Good, the B...
Forum: FPS and Shooters
Last Post: D133H
10-08-2021, 08:05 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 1,217
What a Fiber Laser Markin...
Forum: FPS and Shooters
Last Post: D133H
10-08-2021, 08:03 AM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 1,248

  Introduction to Buffers
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:38 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

Introduction to Buffers

    Introduction to Buffers

        A buffer is a solution that can resist pH change upon the addition of an acidic or basic components. It is able to neutralize small amounts of added acid or base, thus maintaining the pH of the solution relatively stable. This is important for processes and/or reactions which require specific and stable pH ranges. Buffer solutions have a working pH range and capacity which dictate how much acid/base can be neutralized before pH changes, and the amount by which it will change.
            What is a buffer composed of?
            To effectively maintain a pH range, a buffer must consist of a weak conjugate acid-base pair, meaning either a. a weak acid and its conjugate base, or b. a weak base and its conjugate acid. The use of one or the other will simply depend upon the desired pH when preparing the buffer. For example, the following could function as buffers when together in solution:
            Acetic acid (weak organic acid w/ formula CH3COOH) and a salt containing its conjugate base, the acetate anion (CH3COO-), such as sodium acetate (CH3COONa)
            Pyridine (weak base w/ formula C5H5N) and a salt containing its conjugate acid, the pyridinium cation (C5H5NH+), such as Pyridinium Chloride.
            Ammonia (weak base w/ formula NH3) and a salt containing its conjugate acid, the ammonium cation, such as Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH)
            Buffers are a class of solution-stabilizing molecules which existed long before contemporary lab technology. Natural buffer substances like bicarbonate and carbonic acid are manufactured by organisms and molecular interactions, functioning to maintain pH equilibrium.
            After natural buffer systems were discovered, their balancing effects became indispensable in scientific exploration. Synthetic buffers were developed over decades to produce reliable reactions in experimental models, enhancing biochemical reactions and medicinal products.
            New buffers are introduced every year, built from the fundamentals developed over a century ago. This article explores buffers beginning with the foundation which made them inseparable from biochemistry. We’ll then follow the construction and replacement of buffering systems among individual studies as procedures are continually refined.
            Basic reagents are used in combination to produce the most potent buffer solutions. Once buffers transitioned into biochemistry, researchers began to establish what chemical mixtures were most productive for equalizing the pH of certain reactions.
            Between the 1960s and 80s, a project for determining the best buffers resulted in a list that remains crucial in modern laboratories. “Good’s buffers” were produced or collected by Norman Good and his colleagues, and selected on a number of criteria that qualified application to research in the biological field. Some of the requirements were pKa between 6 and 8, high water solubility, stability and a lack of exchange with membranes or biochemical reactions. Good also prioritized substances that could be prepared easily and safely.
            One of the lab world’s most valuable buffer agents, Tris – was first recognized by Good in the early 1960s. Known in therapeutics as THAM, Tris quickly adopted scientific roles. Tris and other reagents identified by Good continue to act as the equalizing agents within buffer mixtures by adjusting pH to a specified range.


    How are Goggles Made

    Goggles are a form of eye protection that is designed to shield the wearer from injuries to the eye due to hazardous conditions in the workplace, home, or other venues such as while playing sports. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), approximately 2,000 work-related eye injuries requiring medical treatment are reported in the U.S. every day, the majority of which could have been prevented or been less severe had the proper eye protection been worn. Furthermore, the Department of Labor reports that eye injuries result in an estimated $300 million annually in lost production time, medical expenses, and workers’ compensation.

    This article will describe how goggles are made and will discuss the common types of safety eyewear used as Personal Protection Equipment (PPE). You can learn more about other types of PPE in our related guides and articles, a list of which may be found at the end of this article.

    Face masks

    When her Danish colleagues first suggested distributing protective cloth face masks to people in Guinea-Bissau to stem the spread of the coronavirus, Christine Benn wasn’t so sure.

    “I said, ‘Yeah, that might be good, but there’s limited data on whether face masks are actually effective,’” says Benn, a global-health researcher at the University of Southern Denmark in Copenhagen, who for decades has co-led public-health campaigns in the West African country, one of the world’s poorest.

    That was in March. But by July, Benn and her team had worked out how to possibly provide some needed data on masks, and hopefully help people in Guinea-Bissau. They distributed thousands of locally produced cloth face coverings to people as part of a randomized controlled trial that might be the world’s largest test of masks’ effectiveness against the spread of COVID-19.

    Face masks are the ubiquitous symbol of a pandemic that has sickened 35 million people and killed more than 1 million. In hospitals and other health-care facilities, the use of medical-grade masks clearly cuts down transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. But for the variety of masks in use by the public, the data are messy, disparate and often hastily assembled. Add to that a divisive political discourse that included a US president disparaging their use, just days before being diagnosed with COVID-19 himself. “People looking at the evidence are understanding it differently,” says Baruch Fischhoff, a psychologist at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who specializes in public policy. “It’s legitimately confusing.”

    Endotoxin Removal from Bench to Process Scale

    Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are highly toxic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and are often present in significant amounts in bacterial cell expression systems such as E.coli.

    A number of methods have been adopted for the removal of endotoxin based on adsorption, in particular ion exchange chromatography. Although downstream processing can significantly reduce endotoxin levels in the product, efficient and cost effective removal of residual endotoxin from biopharmaceutical preparations remains a challenge.

    Astrea Bioseparations Ltd. ('Astrea'Wink has developed a novel affinity chromatography adsorbent, EtoxiClear, that is highly stable, robust and non-toxic, with a high affinity for bacterial endotoxin and low protein binding. EtoxiClear is a cost effective and scalable technology designed for use in endotoxin removal applications including process development, sample/buffer preparation and product polishing steps used during cGMP manufacture of biological molecules.

    This application note describes the use of EtoxiClear? to effectively remove endotoxin from a purified immunoglobulin protein solution at both bench scale and process scale; utilising Astrea’s new 100 mm diameter Evolve? Process Column.

    A Basic Tool for the Small Clinical Lab

    No matter how elementary or advanced, every clinical laboratory has one essential device—a centrifuge. Whether it stands on the benchtop or floor and is refrigerated or not, a laboratory centrifuge fractionates liquid specimens by creating spin-induced high g-forces, and has long been a standard tool for both clinical and research applications. With broad utility, laboratory centrifuges are true workhorses, usually providing trouble-free service for many thousands of cycles over many years of steady use.

    Benchtop centrifuge, also known as tabletop, centrifuges have smaller throughputs and cannot provide high-end g-forces compared with floor models, but can accommodate most applications. Tabletop models include low-speed clinical centrifuges used for diagnostics; high-speed instruments for whole-cell harvesting and some nucleic acid applications; multipurpose centrifuges that accept either fixed-arm or swinging bucket rotors; and cell washers, which are highly specialized for washing red blood cells. For those considering a replacement or initial purchase, here is a brief overview of several of the most popular benchtop models used in the small laboratory. All are manufactured by laboratory equipment companies with long-standing reputations for quality and reliability.

    Low-Speed, Fixed-Angle Clinical Centrifuge Options

    At the entry point of its centrifuge line, the Drucker Company (Philipsburg, PA) produces the Model 614B as its most affordable basic centrifuge. The device is designed for the small lab or doctor’s office and is a single-speed centrifuge (up to 3150 rpm) used for blood separations. The 45o rotor will hold six test tubes of up to 15 mL (17 mm × 125 mm). The unit has a lid safety switch and is UL/CSA compliant. It includes a 30-minute timer, a double-encased, brushless motor, and a clear lid with a safety switch. The motor housing and rotation chamber are designed to allow for cool operation. Standard accessories include three sets of tube holders to fit tubes of varying lengths.

    Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. (Waltham, MA) characterizes its Medilite centrifuge as ideal for routine low-speed centrifugation of blood and urine samples. Each Medilite centrifuge includes a 6- or 12-place 45o rotor and standard shields for aerosol containment. The device is designed with an integral 30-minute timer and accepts a variety of tube sizes up to 10 or 15 mL, depending on the rotor. This centrifuge also features a maintenance-free brushless motor, incorporates a power interrupter for user safety, and provides fixed speeds of 3100 or 2700 rpm.

Print this item

  The Chemistry of Life: The Plastic in Cars
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:36 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

The Chemistry of Life: The Plastic in Cars

    The Chemistry of Life: The Plastic in Cars

    Even if cars soon start running entirely on electricity or hydrogen, they'll still need 100 gallons or more of oil to make their plastic parts, such as seats, dashboards, bumpers, and engine components. And some day that plastic may be recycled back into fuel.

    Cars of old were mostly steel, but the use of lightweight alternatives has dramatically increased in the last couple of decades. Whereas almost no plastic could be found on a car from the 1950s, today's automobiles have more than 260 pounds (120 kilograms) of plastic on board, according to the Transportation Energy Data Book.

    "It is expected that high oil prices and strict CO2 standards will accelerate the growth [in plastic use]," says Aafko Schanssema from PlasticsEurope, a plastic industry group based in Belgium.

    Plastics improve fuel economy by reducing weight, but they also require petroleum as a raw ingredient.

    "Plastics are in fact solidified oil," Schanssema explained.

    Although different plastics have different recipes, it takes roughly 0.4 gallons of crude oil to make 1 pound of plastic. Globally, around 8 percent of the oil that comes out of the ground is used to make plastic.

    The average car is a mix of materials: glass windows, rubber tires, lead batteries, copper wires, as well as traces of zinc, magnesium, tin, platinum and cobalt.

    However, steel is still the single most important material in cars. It is strong, durable and malleable. On the flip side, though, it is relatively heavy. For this reason, car manufacturers have been trimming down on its use.

    For domestic cars, the percentage of weight in steel and iron has dropped from 75 percent in 1977 to 63 percent in 2004, according to the Department of Energy's Transportation Energy Data Book.

    Some of the steel has been replaced by lightweight aluminum, whose percentage has grown from 2.6 percent in 1977 to 8.6 percent in 2004. Plastic has seen a similar rise in prominence, going from 4.6 to 7.6 percent over the same 27-year period. (In Europe, the average car currently has closer to 11 percent plastic, Schanssema said.)

    A 2005 PlasticsEurope study showed that every pound of plastic in a car replaces roughly 1.5 pounds of traditional materials.

    Based on this weight reduction, the same study calculated that plastics provide a fuel savings of about 3.8 percent. However, cars haven't improved their gas mileage by that much.

    "On the whole, U.S.-made cars have increased in total weight, so that whatever effect can be ascribed to plastics has been more than offset," said Michael Renner, a senior researcher for Worldwatch.

    Renner thinks an emphasis on particular parts misses the bigger picture: the total size and power of new vehicles have been going in the "wrong direction" for many years. He does agree, however, that "the continued development of lightweight materials will still be critical."

    Recycle plastic

    Even if plastics can mitigate some of the fuel use, they are not exactly loved by environmentalists.

    "The production of plastics is of course highly energy-intensive and polluting," Renner said. But he added that the same is true for steel and aluminum production.

    One concern is that plastic recycling is not as fully developed as metal recycling of vehicle parts. Composite plastics are especially hard to separate and thus make available for re-use.

    However, to Schanssema's thinking, this would not justify making cars from heavier metal parts,

    "When looking at environmental impact from a life-cycle approach, it has been found that about 95 percent of the environmental impact of a car is during the so-called 'use phase,'" he said. "End-of-life contributes only marginally to the impact."

    Besides reducing weight, plastics help to streamline the shape of vehicles, improve the performance of tires and increase the safety of windshields and fuel tanks.

    Still, there are ideas for making plastics more sustainable. One way might be to use bio-degradable plastics, or ones that come from renewable resources, such as corn or sugarcane.

    Another option is to recover the energy from discarded plastic parts. The company Plas2fuel, based in Washington state, can make a gallon of oil from melting down 8 pounds of plastic. In March, this process was used by Oregon-based Agri-Plas to turn plastic waste into 8,200 gallons of oil.

    Ironically, then, the plastic in electric cars and fuel cell vehicles might one day be recycled into oil that could be burned in gasoline-powered cars.

    We have customers ranging from manufacturing immaturity to international corporations that have as long a history in plastic parts as Rosti does. That said, we do have customers that surprise us and have been able to teach us about a particular design or material application. We value these interactions, as nothing is ever black and white. There are always compromises and trade-offs to be made. Conversely, we also have customers that believe they have “been there and done it all,” so extra care must be taken to prepare supporting evidence for our proposals. This would include simulation data, past product data, theoretical calculations, prototype tooling and other information.

    Moisture conditioning

Processors and end users who use nylon have become very familiar with the effects that water absorption has on that material. In applications where high loads are generated, such as in snapfit assemblies, nylon that is still close to its dry-as-molded state may exhibit brittle failure, and we have learned that this failure mode can be mitigated by conditioning the parts to bring them up to their equilibrium moisture content. This frequently solves problems with the assembly process.

The moisture conditioning process takes many forms. Some simply pour a prescribed amount of water into molded parts contained in a moisture-proof package such as a polybag. Others prefer placing saturated paper towels into the package with the nylon parts and allowing the water to migrate out of the paper and into the nylon. Some go as far as boiling the parts. This not only increases the moisture uptake rate, but also ensures that the moisture is absorbed more uniformly throughout the wall of the part.

While rapid moisture conditioning is a legitimate method for improving the impact resistance of nylon products, there should be concerns with using it indiscriminately. A nylon product may be temporarily brittle while it comes to equilibrium with the atmosphere. But it may also be brittle because the material has been degraded during the molding process. In such situations, the brittle condition is not simply a temporary symptom of low moisture content, but rather is a permanent condition brought about by reduced molecular weight.

The problem is that this shortcoming can be covered up by pumping large amounts of moisture into the polymer. Under such conditions, the polymer becomes sufficiently flexible so that it no longer appears to be brittle. But a moisturizing process that is performed rapidly often introduces more moisture into the polymer than it can retain in the long term. If this happens, then when the excess moisture comes back out of the polymer, the brittle condition can return, usually after the part has gone into the application.

Failure in the field

This occurred in an application involving a critical part in a consumer product. Parts produced in an unfilled nylon 6/6 were received from the molder that appeared to be more brittle than usual. The explanation was that the parts had been molded just a few days earlier. It was winter in a northern state where the indoor humidity was very low and therefore moisture uptake was slow.

The corrective action was to moisture condition the parts. However, this was done very aggressively, and the final moisture content of the conditioned parts was 3.2%. The parts worked initially, going through the assembly and testing process without any obvious problems. However, once in the field the parts began to fail. When the product was brought back in for evaluation, the moisture content of the product had declined to 1.5-1.6%.

Field experience has shown that this is a consistent value that is obtained for parts that have been allowed to come to a true equilibrium with ambient surroundings. It will be higher in extremely hot, humid environments or in situations where the part is immersed in water or used in close proximity to water, but in most cases a part molded in unfilled nylon 6/6 can only hold about 1.5% water by weight.

This experience contradicts a lot of the data published by material suppliers showing the conditioned moisture content at 2.5%. But much of this early work was performed using accelerated techniques that had a tendency to introduce more moisture into the polymer than it could hold in the long term. Field experience shows that values of 1.5% for an unfilled material are much closer to the norm.

It is also important to emphasize that this value is by weight of polymer. If a material contains 33% glass fiber, then one-third of the polymer has been replaced by an inorganic material that is not hygroscopic, and therefore the amount of water that this compound can hold will be proportionally lower.

    Cost Benefits

    One of the biggest drivers of change across any industry is the cost of production. If there are lower cost alternatives that provide the same or better results, naturally a company should pursue those. When it comes to metal-to- plastic conversion, perhaps the biggest advantage of plastic parts is their ability to potentially provide an overall cost savings of 25-50% over metal.

    Also, using plastic often streamlines the number of secondary operations commonly associated with metal parts and reduces the number of assembly steps required. With plastic, OEMs have the ability to combine multiple components into a single molded part design, as opposed to making numerous individual components out of metal and welding or fastening them together. OEMs can even create complex plastic parts with tight tolerances that require no secondary machining using scientific molding processes. Having fewer production steps and less assembly time can provide a significant cost savings, as well as provide more design flexibility.

    Time Benefits

    In addition to streamlining assembly, injection molding gives manufacturers the time-saving advantage of having the color and surface finish ready to go right out of the mold, instead of tacking on time-consuming steps afterwards, as is the case with metal parts. Also, the injection molding process typically has faster cycle times (more parts made per machine hour) than metal components, all while producing repeatable, durable parts.

    Weight Benefits

    Plastic parts are typically 50% lighter than their metal counterparts, and provide more production quantity — that is, you get more more parts per pound with plastic versus metal.

Print this item

  How Sequential Gearboxes Work
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:35 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

How Sequential Gearboxes Work

    How Sequential Gearboxes Work

    If -you have read the HowStuffWorks article How Manual Transmissions Work, then you understand the inner workings of a typical manual transmission, and you know why manual transmissions use the standard "H" pattern in the shifter.

    If you have ever ridden a motorcycle, you know that the manual transmission in a motorcycle is nothing like this. On a motorcycle, you shift gears by clicking a lever up or down with your toe. It is a much faster way to shift. This type of transmission is called a sequential gearbox or a sequential manual transmission.

    Transmission Image Gallery

    It turns out that most race cars use sequential gearboxes as well. A sequential gearbox gives the driver several important advantages that are very useful in a race car. We will discuss these advantages later in this article.

    In this article, you will learn how a sequential manual transmission works and why this type of transmission is now appearing on so many high-performance vehicles.

        What does a sequential gearbox do?
            A sequential gearbox is used along with a manual transmission (specifically, a sequential manual transmission) to allow for faster shifts. However, with an automobile gearbox, drivers can only shift up or down to the next progression — or next in the sequence — gear.

        Do you need a clutch for sequential gearbox?
            You do need a clutch for first gear with a sequential gearbox, but you don't need one for the rest of the gears.

        Why don't cars have sequential gearboxes?
            Sequential gearboxes are really designed for motorcycles and race cars. However, some higher-end cars are beginning to appear with sequential gearboxes.

        How do you shift a sequential transmission?
            Sequential gearboxes are simple. You just push upward to shift to the next gear or down to shift to the previous gear.

        Are gearboxes and transmissions the same?
            A gearbox is technically a component of the transmission. The gearbox is an enclosed gear train, while the transmission is the entire power transmission system (including the gearbox).
            There are also many types of gearboxes, such as electric tool gearbox, home appliance gearbox and so on.

    What does each label mean?

                Label is a set of predefined term that describe the content of different parts of your news site and serve as hints to Google to help classify your content. We hope to provide useful ways for users to access the information they need despite the rapid changes in content creation worldwide.
                Sometimes, label application is informed by publisher selection of appropriate tags in Publisher Center, or by the application of tags in HTML markup. Google may or may not choose to apply labels algorithmically if our systems determine that your content qualifies for a particular label type.
                Important: If you think a particular label doesn't apply to your site, contact the Google News team. We continually add new labels to help users understand and select the content they want to read. Labels that aren't listed in this article are applied algorithmically.
                When to apply labels
                When you view our record of your publication in Publisher Center, select all labels that apply to the content on your site or parts of your site.
                You can apply labels in a few different ways:
                        Add domain level labels if they apply to all content that you publish. For example, would label the entire domain as satire.
                        To denote your "Opinion" or "Satire" sections, apply labels at a section level. For example, would only label that section within as opinion.
                        To add multiple labels to a single section, add the section multiple times.
                Types of labels
                Important: These labels are suggestions that helps Google classify your content better. If our algorithms deem them irrelevant, they may not show up against your content on news surfaces.
                Below are examples of label types:
                        Press release

    What is Pendant Lighting?

    So what actually is pendant lighting? It’s a question that can be both simple and complex to answer. In this article we’ll get into some of the factors that define a pendant light, as well as how best to use one. We’ll also be looking at the difference between pendant lights and hanging lights.

    Good pendant lighting requires both function and aesthetic. Whether you’re setting up pendant lights in a home, business office, warehouse, or anywhere else, these remain important factors. If your pendant lights are either too bright or too weak, it can damage the aesthetic of the entire room. They’re also one of the best lights for the kitchen.

    If you’re interested in learning more about what pendant lights are and how best to use them, then read on!

    Styles of Pendant Lighting

    The basic principle behind a pendant light is that they involve a single bulb suspended in the air. That being said, the majority of pendant lights have a shade of some sort attached to make them appear more interesting and reduce the glare of the bulb.

    Some of the most common materials with which pendant lights are made include glass, metal, plastic and paper. Each of these materials result in a different style and ambiance. While it’s your choice, certain materials do work better in different settings, for example a glass pendant light in a room with a lot of natural light is a great combination.

    Their shapes vary from simple globes to woven cages: there are tons to choose from. If you don’t find a specific shape that you want, it’s often possible to get a custom design made for your own preferences.

    Whether you’re looking for something practical or aesthetic, pendant lights are just as good as any!

    Benefits of Pendant Lighting

    Firstly, pendant lights have the ability to act as spotlights. If you set one up correctly, the light can be projected to a singular spot. Doing so draws attention to whatever is under the spotlight. You can use these to emphasise an important picture, painting, sculpture or whatever else you wish to bring attention to.

    Pendant lights also have the ability to project light from the ceiling to the floor or vice versa. You can use them as either a primary light source or a secondary light source. Using a pendant light as secondary lighting adds a unique effect to the room which will impress anyone.

    Pendant lights also don’t consume any floor space. They can be hung from high ceilings in such a way that they provide ample lighting without getting in the way as you walk around.

    Using pendant lights can bring a big advantage for small businesses as well. Office spaces tend to be quite depressing and dim – a pendant light provides excellent lighting over a desk and improves the aesthetic and mood of the room it is placed in.

    Where to Hang Pendant Lights

    Pendant lights can be used in many different locations. We use them for general lighting, area lighting, and task lighting:

    General lighting refers to the use of pendant lights to illuminate a room. Placing a pendant light in the center of any main room would count as general lighting. If you mean to illuminate the majority of your lounge, dining or any other room, a pendant light is capable of accomplishing this. You can also use a pendant light to illuminate your porch in a similar.

Print this item

  Automatic Pool Cleaner Pros and Cons
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:34 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

Automatic Pool Cleaner Pros and Cons

    Automatic Pool Cleaner Pros and Cons

    Owning a pool comes with several responsibilities, and many pool owners have a lot of questions in the beginning. From everything to do with water balance and chemicals, to which maintenance products to use. However, there is one question that almost every customer asks.

    Which Pool Cleaner is the Best?

    The short answer – it depends on your situation. It’s all going to boil down to which features you want, what your current pool set up is, how much you are willing to spend now and in the future, and how much of an effort you want to put in to using the cleaner. There are 3 main types of automatic pool cleaners: Pressure Pool Cleaner, Suction Side, and Robotic. Let’s go deeper into each one.

    Pressure Side Pool Cleaners

    There are two types of pressure side pool cleaners, one requires a booster pump in order to work, the other runs strictly off of your main circulation pump. There are many different manufacturers of pressure side cleaners, the most common ones being Polaris and Pentair. Hayward recently released their pressure side cleaner the Trivac, and a company called Red Leopard makes the Mercury pressure side cleaner.

    Polaris has a full range of pressure side cleaners, from entry level to top of the line. Most manufacturers will offer pretty significant rebates during the summer season, and will sometimes offer extended manufacturer's warranties (Standard warranty 1yr) when purchased through a local brick & mortar pool supply store, like The Pool Boys in League City, TX.

    Pressure Side Cleaner Pros

    All cleaners should be taken out of the pool when shocking, as well as periodically to rinse off chemical water. The reality is that no one takes these steps and generally leave them in the pool 24/7 to run their daily schedules. This means you aren’t messing with the cleaner very often, other than to empty debris out of the bag.

    Pressure side cleaner parts are usually less expensive when it comes to repairs. If you take care of your cleaner and get things repaired when needed the upkeep is fairly inexpensive. If you let problems go unattended it will generally lead to more problems and costly repairs.

    Parts are widely available.

    Some manufacturers offer large rebates and extended warranties.

    Cost of a pressure side cleaner is usually less expensive than a robotic cleaner. (Although, when you add in the cost of a pressure pump to run it, they start to compare to robotic cleaner costs).

    Pressure Side Cleaner Cons

    Most pressure side cleaners require a separate booster pump which increases your monthly electricity usage.

    When your pressure side cleaner requires a separate booster pump to operate, you will be required to bear the cost of a new pump when your current one eventually wears out.

    Additionally, a separate time clock is used (or relay with automation systems) which add to the list of things to potentially go wrong.

    Pressure side cleaners that work off of your main circulation pump (don’t require a separate booster pump) require a lot of water to be pushed to them in order to work. This takes quite a bit of circulation away from the pool filtration system, and pool returns, which is necessary to keep the pool crystal clear.

    Cleaners aren’t meant to stay in the pool 24/7. This is true for all cleaners. Pressure side cleaners run on a schedule every day so why take it out? Leaving the cleaner in the pool 24/7 increases its exposure to corrosive chemicals in the water, such as chlorine or shock. Over time, these chemicals break down parts in the cleaner and discolor the cleaner. The truth of the matter is – everyone leaves them in the pool, pretty much all the time.

    More “wear items” on pressure side cleaners. This means that there will be required maintenance/tune-ups necessary to keep the cleaner functional. Things such as tail scrubs, wear rings on the tail, bearings, and tires will need to be replaced periodically.

    Pressure side cleaners create suction to pick debris up, they are not pressure cleaning the pool surface. Therefore they are not doing anything to “scrub” your pool’s surface.

    In most cases, these cleaners will not climb all of the way up the walls and won’t get the tile line.

    Suction Side Pool Cleaners

    Suction cleaners are becoming less popular, at least here in Gulf Coast market. It seems to be an “old school” setup, even though some builders are still putting them in. Hayward, Zodiac, and Pentair all have their different versions of suction cleaners. These cleaners use the suction created by your main circulation pump to “suck up” debris from the floor of your pool.

    Suction Side Cleaner Pros

    Suction pool cleaner do a good job of keeping your pool floor clean, especially since they sit so close to the surface.

    They are generally less expensive than pressure side and robotic cleaners, although there are some higher priced models.

    These cleaners run off of the suction from your main circulation pump and don’t require additional equipment, which means there is no real increase to your household electricity usage.

    Suction cleaners are easy to repair and parts are fairly inexpensive.

    As with pressure cleaners, suction cleaners should be taken out of the pool when shocking as well as periodically to rinse off chemical water. The reality is that no one takes these steps and generally leave them in the pool 24/7. This means you aren’t messing with the cleaner very often.

    Suction Side Cleaner Cons

    This pool cleaner uses the suction from your main circulation pump to run. This means that you are taking suction away from your pool skimmers and main drain that is necessary to keep your pool water clear.

    Your pool needs to have a dedicated line for suction cleaners. I have been to many pools where the customer previously purchased a suction cleaner because of the lower price, but did not have a dedicated line in their pool. Instead they plug the cleaner into the pool skimmer line, completely eliminating the skimmer from the pool circulation. Skimmers are important due to the fact that they circulate water efficiently and skim debris off of the pool surface.

    They require A LOT of suction to work. This means that most customers are cutting off 75% of the suction from the skimmer/s and main drain to make their suction cleaner work well.

    You should always use a leaf canister to catch debris before it enters the underground plumbing. Without a leaf canister you increase your chances of clogging an underground line. These canisters usually have to be purchased separately, increasing the cost of your cleaner setup.

    Robotic Pool Cleaners

    If you ask me, these are the best pool cleaner you can buy, especially in regard to the job they do cleaning your pool. Robotic cleaners come with a high price tag, but do they really? When you factor in the additional pump for a pressure cleaner, the necessary leaf canister of a suction cleaner, and the more frequent repairs that are needed for both suction and pressure cleaners you really start to close the gap on pricing.

    These cleaners do the best job of cleaning the pool due to the fact that they climb walls, clean the tile line, usually have brushes built into them, are stand alone and don’t use your pool system to work, etc. There is a wide range of brands and prices for robotic cleaners. For this article I am going to focus on the Maytronics S Series and M Series Robotics.

    Robotic Cleaner Pros

    Your top manufacturers of robotic cleaners generally have longer manufacturer warranties, sometimes as long as 3 years.

    Robotics do not use suction or pressure from your pool system, they are standalone cleaners. This means your pool system can still function to the best of its ability.

    They clean the floor, walls, and tile line.

    Some models have Bluetooth app capabilities where you can navigate the cleaner as well as set the cycle times

    Most models have brushes that simply spin with the movement of the cleaner. Some Maytronics models have an “active brush” which is motor driven, spinning the brush at a faster rate than the cleaner is moving. This means that the cleaner is actively scrubbing your pool surface, opposed to just vacuuming.

    A lot of models come with a caddy that you can coil the power cable on, mount the cleaner, and holds the power supply, allowing you to easily move and store the cleaner in a cool shaded area.

    There are models of robotic cleaners that have top-loading canisters or cartridges. This may not sound like much, but after a few times of flipping a robotic cleaner upside down to empty it you will understand the beauty of it.

    There are just 3 pool cleaner accessories that can have problems – Power Supply, Cable, and Motor. That being said, there are other parts on the cleaner that may need to be replaced, usually do to old age or lack of maintenance.

    You can run them as long as your house has power, even if your pool system goes down.

    Save on energy cost over pressure cleaner and pump setup.

    Robotic Cleaner Cons

    Robotic cleaners are not designed to run on a repeat schedule every day. Some of the premium models will come with a 7-Day Programmable Timer that comes in handy if you go on a short vacation. Other than that the cleaner will need the cycle time set at each cleaning session.

    Robotic cleaners require more effort from the user. These cleaners absolutely need to be removed from the pool, rinsed off, and stored in a shaded cool area out of the elements - ideally after every use. This will greatly extend the life of the unit.

    Higher up front cost than a suction or pressure cleaner.

    Repair parts tend to cost more and usually take 1-2 weeks to get in stock.

Print this item

  Special Issue Nanofiltration Membranes
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:32 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

Special Issue Nanofiltration Membranes

    Special Issue Nanofiltration Membranes

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a de novo class of membrane filtrations with unique properties ranging from ultrafiltration to reverse osmosis. Thanks to their high removal performance, NF membranes have gained increasing attention from both academia and industry for various applications, especially in water and wastewater treatment and desalination. However, the NF process still requires further improvement in terms of selectivity, separation efficiency, membrane fabrication, operation requirements, and sustainability.

    This Special Issue on “Nanofiltration Membranes: Recent Advances and Environmental Applications” of the Membranes seeks to include but is not limited to recent progress in emerging NF membranes fabrication and modification, polymeric and ceramic NF membrane, hybrid and composite NF membranes, organic solvent NF, positively charged NF membranes, NF module and process design, NF removal mechanisms, fouling mitigation strategies, new environmental applications of NF, and predictive modelling of NF membrane processes. Authors are invited to submit their latest original results as full papers or short communications. Furthermore, state-of-the-art and critical reviews and analysis papers are welcome.

    Advantages of GRE pipes

    Glass Reinforced Epoxy or GRE pipes are a valid alternative to carbon steel pipes especially for corrosive, aggressive and normal environments.

GRE pipe technology is based on the Discontinuous Filament Winding process using high strength fiberglass (E-glass) and amine cured epoxy resin as basic material. Numerically controlled machines manufacture the product on a mandrel according to the cross section filament winding process. The continuous glass fibers are helically wound at predetermined angles and bonded with the epoxy resin.

Lightweight and easy to handle and install GRE pipes have a smooth internal surface that reduces friction and enables a high pipe flow capacity. Low thermal conductivity of GRE pipes in comparison to steel (only 1% of steel values), minimizes the cost of insulation and the heat loss. Another major benefit of GRE pipes is that once installed they are virtually maintenance-free.

GRE pipe is well suited for environments where the corrosion resistance at competitive prices is required.

GRE pipes offer a unique combination of high mechanical, thermal and chemical resistance which is obtained by the selection of high performance components and a proper design of the structure. The inner liner, which is made by a resin rich layer reinforced with C-glass or synthetic veil, guarantees the pipe water tightness, its chemical and temperature resistance. The mechanical resistant layer is composed of successive layers of pre-stressed glass roving impregnated with epoxy resin and orientated with a precise, predetermined angle selected in order to achieve the properties required. The resin and the hardener system are selected with the consideration of the combination of properties required from the finished product. The glass reinforcement in the form of continuous roving is chosen base on its compatibility with epoxy resin. It is applied on the rotating mandrel following the hoop (radial) winding pattern combined with a helical winding pattern at an angle ranging from 45?° to 90?°.

Glass tape or unidirectional reinforcements can be used to obtain local reinforcement. An external resin coating reinforced with a synthetic veil adds a finish to the pipe. Should weathering be a problem a UV inhibitor will be added to the coating.

GRE pipes are generally manufactured with an integral joint, which means that the socket (for bonding, lock, or thread) is produced simultaneously with the pipe body by winding on a specially designed metallic mould fixed at one end of the mandrel. The pipes are wound on precisely machined steel mandrels, the mandrel is extracted only when the pipe is cured.


    Wide range of diameters from 1 " (25mm) up to and including 54 " (1400 mm).

    Standard lengths of 12 m.

    Adhesive, locked bell/spigot, lamination and flanged jointing systems.

    Anti corrosion system

    Long life (50 years) + zero maintenance = low life cycle cost.

    UV Resistant - can be safely installed above-ground.

    Conductive pipe and fittings are available.

    Fast, low cost assembly due to light weight and simple jointing techniques.

    Lighter support needed for above-ground systems.

    Low Hazen williams number due to the smoother internal surface.



    Excellent resistance to corrosion and long service life.

    Superior Flow characteristics.

    Low paraffin's and solid build-up.

    Installation cost much lower than steel.

    Installation unaffected by weather conditions.

    The pipes weight about ?? the weight of steel.

    Fast and reliable installation. API 8 RD EUE Threads and 4 TPI available.

    Operational pressures in line pipe, tubing and casing up to 3500 PSI.

    Exceptional performance against pressures and high capacity load.


    Transport lines.

    Fire Fighting networks.

    Line for chemical disposal.

    Injections lines.

    Lines for gathering and gas transportation.

    Line for universal insolutions and water injection in mines.

    Acid transportation.

    Line for recirculation.

    Production wells, Tubing and casing.

    Line for chemical transportation.

    Water injection, tubing and casing.

    Line for disposal formation waters.

    The Early Rotor Blades

    Early helicopters like the famous Bell 47 came with main rotor blades made of wood. The inherent characteristic of wood being strong and flexible provided the perfect material for early rotor blade designs.

    There were problems however as wood can easily be damaged by woodpeckers, dust and stones, and even rain causing the blade to swell leading to severe vibrations from an out of balance rotor system.

    As the realization of the versatility of the helicopter become more popular, the design and evolution of the airframe and the rotor blades began to move forward.

    Materials Development

    A rotor blade needs to be strong but also very flexible. You have probably seen that when a helicopter is parked the main rotor blades droop down, but in flight centrifugal force keeps them flat. Not only that, but the blades also flex in flight, especially when affected by turbulence and they need to be able to withstand these loads as well as keeping the helicopter in the air.

    To be able to withstand these stresses placed on the blades they need to be designed to be strong in certain areas, but yet flexible in others. Although wood is great at doing this they are limited to the weight they can lift and the speed at which the tips can rotate. This is where new materials were needed.

    One of the first advances into rotor blade design was the skinning of the blade’s leading edge with corrosion-resistant steel to aid in erosion control, especially towards the tips of the rotor blade where it is moving the fastest.

    The Hiller UH -12B was one of these aircraft to adopt such a design on its blades during the 1950’s.


    As testing and development into metals really began to take stride it became inevitable that rotor blades would find themselves made of them.

    As metals solved some of the problems presented in wooden blades, they presented their own. Constant flexing of certain metals over time can cause it to break. Think of what happens to a paperclip when you twist it back and forth. The other problem with metal is that a crack can rapidly spread causing catastrophic failure – Which is not generally welcomed by pilots!

    This was one of the first reasons that rotor blades started to have a time limit on their use. Until this point, wooden blades were considered to last indefinitely!


    The addition of honeycomb technology into rotor blades really helped to improve the design and lifespan of a rotor blade. Used in conjunction with other metals, rotor blades can be produced strong, flexible, light, and cheaper than their advanced composite younger brothers.

    To ensure the long-term safe operation of the FRP membrane housing, please observe the following regulations and recommendations:

    1. The shrinkage expansion rate of the FRP membrane housing is relatively small. Please observe the rated design pressure index during use. Operate it within the allowable pressure range.Long time overpressure operaton is strictly forbidden!

    2. The service temperature of FRP membrane housing is generally from ﹣7 ℃ to 49 ℃. It is strictly forbidden to work under the condition beyond this temperature range.

    3. The back pressure of the two-end permeate water outlet shall not exceed 125 PSI.

    4. Strictly abide by the pressure level of each medium, such as clean water, sewage, seawater, etc. If you use water with special media, please contact our company in advance to avoid accidents.

    5. When the RO system is working or there is pressure in the frp membrane housing, it is strictly prohibited to knock, disassemble or move the membrane housings. The surrounding vibration source environment must be strictly controlled.

    6. It is strictly forbiden to apply pressure or gravity to the upper part of the membrane shell, or to its corresponding accessories.

    7. In order to ensure the inner surface of the fiberglass membrane housing clean, manufacturer use a neutral cleaning solution to clean. It is strictly forbidden to use concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, etc. as cleaning fluid.

    The above is all the content that the editor introduces to everyone, we need to maintain and clean the FRP membrane housings regularly during use.

Print this item

  Key Cabinet and Locker Management
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:31 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

Key Cabinet and Locker Management

    Key Cabinet and Locker Management

    PACOM Unison is a market-leading platform with the ability to link with ASSA Abloy Traka intelligent key management system and lockers solutions to manage and control access to a company’s most important assets. When a conventional key is stolen, mislaid, or accidentally taken home, security is compromised and the organization is suddenly vulnerable. Even if nothing is stolen, and no damage is done, the cost and inconvenience of fitting new locks and the impact on productivity can be significant.

    Traka can significantly reduce the cost of losses through accidental damage, theft, personal injury and downtime.

    The integration between Unison and ASSA Abloy Traka allows for extensive key management at facilities such as data centers, healthcare facilities, universities, municipalities, governments and other similar applications.

    The user presents an access card to a reader to open the key cabinet and access a selected key. All actions and events are logged in Unison and can be accessed at any time. Unison can be configured to activate an alarm if a key is not returned to the cabinet on time. Unison can also be programmed to activate an event once a key is borrowed or is returned late.

    Unison’s integration with Traka supports automatic upload of configuration making it efficient to upload data to user tags or update time schedules.

    Deister proxSafe Integration

    Deister proxSafe is a key and asset management system used to effectively control and monitor valuable assets using high security, electronically controlled cabinets.

    Monitoring who, when and where keys and assets are accessed adds confidence and peace of mind with control and immediate response to alerts that can be automatically raised when alarm conditions exist.

    Integrating Deister proxSafe with the PACOM Unison system allows Unison operators to respond to alarms, perform actions and monitor the status of the key management system as part of their standard Unison security management solution.

    Linking Unison cardholder data and proxSafe key users provide the ability to control access to individual keys using existing cardholder data and the automatic sharing of data between Unison and proxSafe ensures that secure access to critical assets is maintained at all times.

    The electronically controlled key cabinets can be efficiently monitored from the convenience of the Unison client and operators can see who has accessed keys and assets at any time. More than 50 different events can be displayed as alarms in real-time, enabling Unison operators to take timely action.


    The aim of this article is inform you on how to implement proper key management and to answer 3 important questions regarding centralized and automated key management:

    What is Centralized Key Management?

    How can a centralized system help meet regulatory compliance?

    How can automation further improve the life cycle management of keys?

    Distributed key management systems make it very difficult to manage cryptographic keys. As your company grows, so does your data and the number of encryption keys you must manage to maintain data security.

    By switching to a centralized key management system, you will remove these challenges, increase life cycle efficiency, and help your IT departments develop proper key management policies that scale with your organization.

    First, let’s take a look at what it means to practice proper key management.

    Proper management of cryptographic keys in hardware security modules.

    Proper key management is an essential process of data security within any organization handling sensitive information. To avoid risks and efficiently scale operations, an organization should centralize its large intelligent key management system. This will result in good key generation and ensure key integrity within the system.

    How to implement proper centralized key management policies and procedures:

    Develop secure data policies within your organization

    Define the processes necessary to implement those policies

    Automate those processes for your hardware security modules with a dedicated KMS.

    What is a Centralized Key Management System?

    A centralized KMS offers more efficiency as opposed to a distributed or application-specific KMS. They are called centralized because they use a single point to secure key management, policies and access audit logs. To boot, your organization can develop uniform key management procedures across all of your departments.

    Some benefits of a centralized key management system:

    Provides tamper evident records for proof of compliance

    Streamlines key management processes and reduces costs

    Automatic key updates and distribution to any end-point

    Reduces the risk of human errors with user & admin permissions

    Dual control with asynchronous workflows

    System-wide key control manages any key type and format

    Offers High availability and scalability

    Reduces costs with automation

    Simple backup and recovery

    Another key advantage of implementing a centralized system — it eases regulatory compliance by providing a complete record of every time a sensitive operation or key activity is administered from the server.

    How can a centralized system help meet regulatory compliance?

    Regulation is a topic brought up in any serious discussion regarding data security. Anytime sensitive information storage is involved, you must follow the standard security rules required by an exhaustive list of compliance authorities. The particular regulations/security standards relevant to encryption and key management depend on the type of information that is being stored or processed and what sector the business operates within. In order to pass compliance testing and audits, you need to keep your data security procedures documented and updated. For most companies, compliance can be a major hassle.

    Here are some of the standards to consider for HSMs:

            Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)
            Common Criteria Evaluation Assurance Levels (CC EAL)
            Payment Card Industry - Data Security Standards (PCI DSS)

    Lite series key management system is typically developed with certain sectors/industries in mind, and therefore it is advisable to choose a centralized KMS that has a proven track record for supporting the security/regulatory standards of the particular sector that is relevant to the business.

    A centralized KMS can help passing compliance audits by enforcing the security policies and automatic logging of all security sensitive operations. A unified overview and central control of all the essential logs makes demonstrating compliance much easier and quicker than auditing various disparate key management systems.

    Compliance is non-negotiable. It is equally important for the system to support the complete life-cycle of cryptographic keys. Automating key management further reduces the need for time-consuming, manual key functions.

    A system that puts high value keys under management needs to centralize, automate and optimize the encryption key management process through the entire life cycle. Proper management reduces overhead costs, ensures generated key quality, and protects these keys in storage and in transit.


    A guard tour system is a system used to help companies and organizations to organize, log and execute guard tours and patrols in their assets ensuring that the officers will accomplish their tasks within the predefined time intervals. There is a wide variety of guard tour systems, which can be divided in two major categories: Wand guard tour systems based on handheld devices and cloud guard tour systems based on modern mobile and cloud technology.

    Standalone guard tour system provides a means to check and record the time that a guard executes his guard tour by scanning specific checkpoints assigned on the area he patrols. Checkpoints are placed in certain points either on buildings or on other locations of a site or remote area and help the managing staff to identify each different location and each portion of a specific territory. The on-site officers can scan checkpoints, send SOS alerts, track and record events and conduct and send reports to the managing staff or the clients, even in real-time.


    The implementation of a guard tour system will help companies to monitor their officers accurately in time and manage their assets more effectively, upgrading their security services. So, many different industries can take advantage of the use of a guard tour system:

      - Security companies, to monitor officers / Lone Workers, manage guard tours and conduct reports.

    - Educational Institutes, to increase the safety of their students

      - Real Estate organizations, to manage their buildings and protect them from damage

      - Public transportation services, to direct activities and manage daily incidents

      - Finance Institutes, to be safe from external threats

      - Warehouse departments, to assure the security status of their merchandise

      - Manufacturing facilities, to protect from damages and record incidents in every aspect of manufacture process

      - Cleaning and maintenance services, to manage their installations and workers

Print this item

  Sports Wear: Between Fashion, Innovation and Sustainability
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:30 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

Sports Wear: Between Fashion, Innovation and Sustainability

    Sports Wear: Between Fashion, Innovation and Sustainability


    Sport is an important part of many people’s lives—as both recreation and entertainment. It is also a sizeable industry with political and economic ramifications in today’s world. Within the last half-century or so, sports wear has become a driving force for new trends in fashion and for textile innovation. This special issue of Fashion Practice was inspired by the “Spandex to Sportstech—Fashion and Innovation in Sportswear” conference, organized in 2011 by guest editor Mette Bielefeldt Bruun at the Danish National Research Foundation’s Centre for Textile Research at the University of Copenhagen.

    The stated purpose of Fashion Practice is to provide a site for multidisciplinary treatments of the practices of fashion. “Spandex to Sportstech” was designed as a cross-disciplinary forum for renewed consideration of functional, social, aesthetic and environmental issues connected with sportswear, and some of the papers presented here are rooted in original conference contributions. This journal issue is truly cross-disciplinary, beginning with fashion history, represented by Michael A. Langkj?r with “Urban Fitness, Gendered Practices, and Fine Art: The Significance of Antonio Lopez’s Sporty Styling of Fashion” and moving on to the sportswear industry itself with its brands and markets, represented by Kristine Holm-Jensen with “Specialized in Sportswear: Transformations of the Generic Knitwear Industry in Post-War Denmark.” Several articles then consider fiber and textile technologies and their design applications. Jane McCann leads this group with her “Sportswear Design for the Active Ageing.” McCann is followed by Deborah A. Christel and Nicole H. O’Donnell with “Assessment of Women’s Plus-Size Swimwear for Industry Applications.” Alicia Potuck, Sarah Meyers, Ariana Levitt, Erik Beaudette, Hong Xiao, C. C. Chu, and Huiju Park complete the group with their “Development of Thermochromic Pigment Based Sportswear for Detection of Physical Exhaustion.” In “What’s the Problem? Odor-control and the Smell of Sweat in Sportswear,” Ingun Grimstad Klepp, Madeline Buck, Kirsi Laitala and Marit Kjeldsberg look at how fiber technologies connect with our social values associated with body odor and its suppression; in doing so, Klepp et al. also mention the issue of sustainability. A forthright appraisal of the problem of sustainability within the sportswear industry is given by an industry representative to Lena Erdnü? in “A Perspective on Sustainability Initiatives of a Swedish Outdoor Brand: An Interview with Lennart Ekberg from Hagl?fs.” Finally, Lauren Downing Peters has contributed a review of the Museum of the City of New York’s 2013 exhibition: “Stephen Burrows: When Fashion Danced.”


    A 'tool to empower': The evolution of women's sportswear

    Before the advent of designer activewear, women's sports wear ranked low on the list of fashion priorities. But a new exhibition demonstrates that sporting attire has long been a valuable tool for self-expression and an important path towards greater liberation."Sporting Fashion: Outdoor Girls 1800 to 1960" includes about 65 ensembles from mainland Europe, the UK, and the US, ranging from Victorian hunting dresses and couture-level leisure wear to tailor-made team uniforms. Organized by the FIDM Museum at the Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising in Los Angeles and the American Federation of Arts, the show opens at the Frick Art Museum in Pittsburgh on July 3, before touring nationwide through 2024.

        Design innovation

    Garments from the early 1800s are tailored to strolling in parks, gardening, and ice skating -- easy, acceptable activities for women propelled outside by an interest in horticulture, health and fresh air.

    The idea of a woman exerting herself was still taboo: In 1806, an article in the popular British magazine La Belle Assemblée, excerpted in the show's comprehensive catalog, warned that, "the constitution of women is adapted only to moderate exercise; their feeble arms cannot perform work too laborious and too long continued, and the graces cannot be reconciled with fatigue and sun-burning."

    That's the outlook for men's sports wear as the fall wholesale buying season gets under way this week. And while merchants and manufacturers have been expressing their traditional optimism as the new lines open, the unknown factors resulting from President Nixon's economic stabilization program have brought a modicum of caution to the trade.

    Consumer spending for men's and boys’ apparel amounted to approximately $16‐billion last year, with sportswear a major but undefinable percentage of the total. What is even more significant, however, is that while production of a number of other categories of men's wear, such as suits and dress shirts, declined during the year, sportswear manufacturing was greater in 1971 than ever before.

    And while statistics on the sportswear category are not collected by any government agency or trade association, conversations with retailers last week indicated that 1971's volume advances would he continued at the same rapid pace in 1972.


    Physical activity makes breasts bounce up, down and even in a figure-eight. Continuous and repetitive movements can result in soreness, pain and sagging.

    Women's sports bra is made to reduce this movement. Breasts have no muscle, yet without proper support, the skin and Cooper's ligaments (ligaments near the breast which give them their size and shape) can break down and cause sagging. Once your Cooper's ligaments stretch out, they do not bounce back.

    It doesn't matter what size breasts you have, everyone experiences bouncing during physical activity. Therefore, every woman, no matter what size she is, should wear a sports bra while running or exercising.

            Compression bras work the way they sound, by compressing breasts against the chest to restrict movement.
            Encapsulation bras have individual cups. Each cup surrounds and supports each breast. Most regular bras are encapsulation bras and have no compression.
            Combination compression/encapsulation bras combine compression with individual cups and offer the most support.
            Bra tanks, also known as shimmels, are tank tops with a built-in shelf bra. These are okay for low impact activities, but not for running.
            Finally, there are differences in straps. Spaghetti straps provide less support than wider straps. Racer-back straps are more supportive than both spaghetti and scoop back.


    You want a sports bra that fits well, both in the band and cups. Overall, your sports bra should feel a bit tighter than a regular bra, however, you should be able to breathe deeply and comfortably. Hook it in the middle and take some deep breaths. Is this comfortable? Good. It should be.

    The band shouldn't move. It should fit snugly and comfortably. Raise your hands above your head. Did the elastic band move? If it crept up your rib cage, try a smaller band. If the bra has straps, try adjusting them.

    Your breasts shouldn't bulge, pay close attention to any bulging at the top or by the underarm. Furthermore, the cups shouldn't have any wrinkles or gaps. If the cup fabric is wrinkled, try a smaller size.

    Make sure there is nothing rubbing or chafing around the armholes, straps, seams, hooks, clasps or anything else. Many sports bras offer adjustable straps. Adjust them to feel supportive, yet not uncomfortable. Furthermore, make sure the straps aren't digging into your shoulders.

    Underwires are supposed to sit flat on your ribs, not on your breasts. The front (between the wire) should be against your chest bone.

    Luckily, most newer sports bras use high-tech fabrics, including moisture wicking. This can improve breathability and help remove excess moisture from sweat which can cause chafing. Cotton bras will stay wet, this can lead to uncomfortable skin irritations.

    For the last step, jump up and down, jog in place, do jumping jacks. If it feels supportive, you're set! If not, keep looking.

    How Sportswear Took Over Your Wardrobe

    “Sportswear as casualwear is essentially a preppy invention – the carryover from hearty WASP athletic pursuits which gave us the likes of the sweatshirt, sweatpants and letterman jacket,” says Josh Sims, author of books such as Men of Style. “Sportswear was appreciated for being tough and practical.”

Like military uniform, that other stalwart of menswear, mens sportswear set has long been valued for the rugged characteristics it both possesses in itself and indicates in its wearer. And in sport, like war, competition results in game-changing technological breakthroughs. What we wear on the fields of battle and play has advanced more dramatically than what we wear elsewhere. If sportswear is at the cutting edge of fashion right now, that’s because – in technical terms – it always has been.

The current, unprecedented sportswear boom though can also be seen as a pendulum swing away from the hashtag-menswear sartorialism that followed the economic downturn and increased competition for jobs – coinciding with the 2007 airing of Mad Men. As employment rose again, so did jobs that didn’t impose traditional dress codes and a social media-fuelled emphasis on individual creativity.Then there’s the swelling fashionability of fitness, which has given us a legitimate excuse to wear sportswear outside the gym beyond comfort and sheer laziness. Instead of spending valuable time fastidiously parting our hair and folding our pocket squares, we’re throwing on hoodies and baseball caps. And if you’re running around town all day, it makes sense to wear shoes designed specifically for marathons.

It’s arguably the luxury sector that’s setting the pace. Streetwear designers like Demna Gvasalia at Balenciaga and Virgil Abloh at Louis Vuitton are running the show(s), elevating previously utilitarian sportswear to the very height of fashion. T-shirts, down jackets and sneakers, which grew by 25%, 15% and 10% respectively, were “standout categories” in the 2017 Bain Luxury Study.

With its links to skateboarding, surfing and other sports, you could argue that streetwear – whatever that loaded term means – essentially is sportswear. “I’m not sure streetwear is the dominant mode, if you’re talking urban, hip-hop-driven streetwear,” contends Sims. “It’s sportswear with graphics, in effect.

“There’s not much original design in streetwear – unlike sportswear, then and now – and what there is tends to be driven by – ta-da – sport.”

Print this item

  Xylitol Research and Evidence
Posted by: A911H - 09-30-2021, 12:28 AM - Forum: Off Topic - No Replies

Xylitol Research and Evidence

    Xylitol Research and Evidence

    Xylitol is a non-sugar sweetener extracted from the birch tree. It is a five-carbon polyol that has effectively demonstrated itself to be cariogenic, by its action of neutralizing plaque acidity on teeth and repairing tooth enamel. Hence, it is also called the “magic bullet.”

    The major production of xylitol goes to the pharmaceutical and oral hygiene industries and to confectionary manufacturers. It has 30% less calories compared to table sugar (calorific value of xylitol is 2.4 kcal/g, while that of sugar is 4 kcal/g) and is used in different food products for children like chewing gum, candies, gelatin, and in lozenges, toothpaste, and mouth rinses.

    Xylitol and Dental Caries

    Clinical trials on xylitol show that it plays a major role in prevention of dental caries in babies and teenaged children and in the fetus through the mother. Use of xylitol chewing gum is directly related to reduction of dental caries. Moreover, xylitol also reduces the s. mutans transmission from mother to infant.

    Another research on children has found that xylitol candy, pops, ice, gums, puddings, and cookie help in arresting dental caries. Follow-up studies five years later showed that xylitol gum resulted in reduction of caries by 59% against no gum use.

    Trials conducted in Finland, a major producer of xylitol, proved that children of xylitol-treated mothers’ had lower levels of s. mutans than those treated with fluoride varnish or chlorhexidine.

    Other Impacts of Xylitol

    Accumulation of excessive xylitol in the intestine leads to retention of water, which results in diarrhea. Consumption of excessive volumes of xylitol can lead to side effects such as gas and bloating. Xylitol which remains unabsorbed is eliminated after being broken into carbon dioxide. A report published by the European Union’s Scientific Committee on Food in 1985 stated that consuming 50 g of xylitol per day can lead to diarrhea. The Committee also affirmed that tabletop sweeteners that contain xylitol must be highlighted with a warning saying: “Too much of consumption may lead to laxative effects.”

    The impact of xylitol is much less on the blood sugar levels compared with natural sugar, because of the gradual absorption rate of xylitol. This fact was approved in a xylitol review by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This indicates that xylitol could help people with disrupted tolerance of glucose, a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

    Health benefits and risks of chocolate

    Chocolate is made from tropical Theobroma cacao tree seeds. Its earliest use dates back to the Olmec civilization in Mesoamerica.

    After the European discovery of the Americas, chocolate became very popular in the wider world, and its demand exploded.

    Chocolate has since become a popular food product that millions enjoy every day, thanks to its unique, rich, and sweet taste.

    Fast facts on chocolate

        Chocolate consumption has long been associated with conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension.
        Chocolate is believed to contain high levels of antioxidants.
        Some studies have suggested chocolate could lower cholesterol levels and prevent memory decline.
        Chocolate contains a large number of calories.
        People who are seeking to lose or maintain weight should eat chocolate only in moderation.

    History of Candy

    Candy is made by dissolving sugar in water or milk to form syrup. The final texture of candy depends on the different levels of temperatures and sugar concentrations. Hot temperatures make hard candy, medium heat make soft candy and cool temperatures make chewy candy. The English word ''candy'' is in use since the late 13th century and it derives from Arabic qandi, meaning ''made of sugar''.

        Honey has been a favorite sweet treat throughout recorded history and is even mentioned in the Bible. The ancient Egyptians, Arabs and Chinese candied fruits and nuts in honey which was an early form of candy. One of the oldest hard candies is barley sugar which was made with barley grains. The Mayans and the Aztecs both prized the cocoa bean, and they were the first to drink chocolate. In 1519, Spanish explorers in Mexico discovered the cacao tree, and brought it to Europe. People in England and in America ate boiled sugar candy in the 17th century.

    Sour candy trends

    Sour candy has captured the attention and taste buds of consumers who look for confectionery experiences outside of the standard of sweet, says Steve Schuster, president of Wisconsin-based Schuster Products, which makes a line of sour products called Face Twisters.

    “It is extreme, and people like to push their sensation of taste,” he said. “They are now accustomed to this taste sensation and seek it because it moves beyond the norm.”

    Jenny Doan, director of marketing for Warheads maker Impact Confections, agreed. She pointed to consumers’ palates becoming increasingly daring, especially as consumers experience more global cuisine.

    “Globalization has exposed consumers to more sour foods across many categories — examples include Greek yogurt, fermented Korean kimchi, Chinese sour plums, etc.” she said. “Also food preparation techniques such as fermentation and pickling are gaining in popularity and spurring development for more sour foods and beverages.”

    And the products in development come from several confectionery categories, including chewing gum, hard candy and chewy candy. Chewy candy also has experienced steady growth over the last few years. IRI, a Chicago-based research firm, reported the $3.73 billion non-chocolate chewy category grew by 3 percent in the year ending Feb. 24, 2019.

    Of the Top 20 non-chocolate chewy candy brands IRI tracks, a quarter of them are positioned as sour candy, and at least another quarter have sour line extensions. Mondelez International’s Sour Patch Kids pulled in just over $197 million in the reporting period, while Trolli Sour Brite Crawlers generated $133.6 million.

    The Untold Truth Of Gummy Bears

    There are the people who love to munch on chocolate bars, from Butterfingers to Snickers, indulging in the perfect combination of sweet and salty. And then there are the candy lovers who are obsessed with anything chewy, gooey, and gummy. Gummy candies only seem to be rising in popularity, and really, there's a gummy candy in pretty much every shape out there at this point.


    But despite the introduction of gummy candies like frogs, butterflies, and even mini soda bottles, gummy bears will forever be one of the most iconic gummy candies we turn to.


    But what's the story behind these little gummy bears? How did they get their start, and what's in them that makes them so perfectly chewy? They're a ridiculously satisfying sweet when you're trying to curb a craving, but as it turns out, there's a lot more to their story than meets the eye. We decided to grab a handful and dig a little deeper. This is the untold truth of gummy bears.

    The History of Lollipop Candy

    The first incarnation of the lollipop candy was probably created by cave people thousands of years ago who collected honey from beehives with a stick. Not wanting to waste the sweet nectar, they most likely licked the stick, thus inventing the world’s first lollipop. Good for them (good for us). Archaeologists believe that ancient Chinese, Arabs, and Egyptians all produced fruit and nut confections that they "candied" in honey, which serves as a preservative, and inserted sticks into to make easier to eat.If the 17th Century English version doesn’t count as the first modern lollipop, you could look to the Civil War era for another early forerunner, when hard candy was put on the tips of pencils for children. The early 20th Century was the era of automation, which is when the birth of the lollipop as we now know it begins in earnest, but there are still discrepancies as to who is the true creator.

    What Is Chewing Gum?

        Chewing gum is a soft, rubbery substance that’s designed to be chewed but not swallowed.
        Recipes can vary between brands, but all chewing gums have the following basic ingredients:
                Gum: The non-digestible, rubbery base used to give gum its chewy quality.
                Resin: Usually added to strengthen gum and hold it together.
                Fillers: Fillers, such as calcium carbonate or talc, are used to give gum texture.
                Preservatives: These are added to extend shelf life. The most popular choice is an organic compound called butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
                Softeners: These are used to retain moisture and prevent the gum from hardening. They can include waxes like paraffin or vegetable oils.
                Sweeteners: Popular ones include cane sugar, beet sugar and corn syrup. Sugar-free gums use sugar alcohols like xylitol or artificial sweeteners like aspartame.
                Flavorings: Added to give a desired flavor. They can be natural or synthetic.


    candy, also called confectionery, sweet food product, the main constituent of which generally is sugar. The application of the terms candy and confectionery varies among English-speaking countries. In the United States candy refers to both chocolate products and sugar-based confections; elsewhere “chocolate confectionery” refers to chocolates, “sugar confectionery” to the various sugar-based products, and “flour confectionery” to products such as cakes and pastries. This article is primarily concerned with sugar confectionery. Other types of confections are discussed in the articles baking and cocoa.

Print this item

  The Importance Of Bandages And Emergency Pressure Dressings
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:37 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

The Importance Of Bandages And Emergency Pressure Dressings

    The Importance Of Bandages And Emergency Pressure Dressings

    Shallow cuts, scrapes, and abrasions may be minor in the realm of workplace injuries, but they should be tended to immediately. A well-stocked first aid kit is important to have on hand so that workers can treat their wounds in a timely manner. They also help ensure that minor injuries do not become infected. Employers should be sure to make first aid kits available at any workplace.

    Most minor injuries only require an adhesive bandage, such as a Band-Aid, or a small amount of gauze and tape. Bandages come in many varieties, and the appropriate should be used depending on the nature of the wound and the environment where a staff member works. There are waterproof adhesive bandages, ones made from flexible woven fabric, sheer strips, and heavyweight bandages for maximum strength that will not tear.

    Larger wounds that can't be treated with a bandage and need more absorbency require an emergency pressure dressing. This type of first aid product is made from high-absorbency fabric or gauze. It should be applied with a great deal of pressure and wrapped tightly with a bandage roll.

    In addition to emergency pressure dressings, some cuts and lacerations can be treated with alternative supplies. Steri-Strips and butterfly bandages are very small pieces of medical tape that can be used to bring the edges of a wound together to keep it closed and help reduce bleeding.

    Severe wounds require medical attention. A doctor or medial professional should be called if:

    ? The edges of the wound are jagged
? The wound is on the face
? The edges of the wound gape open
? There is dirt in the wound that won't wash or rinse out
? The wound is draining pus
? The wound is tender and inflamed
? The area around the wound has gone numb
? Red streaks are forming near the wound
? Bleeding is profuse and won't stop in 20 minutes

    For wounds that can be treated on-site, keeping first aid supplies in one central location, or multiple locations in larger facilities, is the basis for an effective and useful first aid program. Workers should be trained to know where these items are kept so that if an injury occurs, they will be able to quickly find and properly use bandages, Band-Aids, emergency pressure dressings, Steri-Strips, butterfly bandages, and other items. This knowledge, as well as the proper protocol for severe wounds, is essential to maintaining a sound and safe workplace.

    When to Use an Elastic Bandage



    Joint injuries can often be initially treated with an elastic bandage for compression and support. But there are many reasons and ways to use an elastic bandage after an injury, and times when one shouldn’t be used at all. Here are some tips about when and how to use an elastic bandage.


    When used immediately after injury, an elastic bandage can serve many functions:

    - Control swelling around an injured joint

    - Hold an ice pack in place

    - Secure a splint after a fracture or severe sprain

    - Keep other bandages secure and protected


    - Elastic bandages should not be used over an open wound. Clean and dress the wound before applying any type of wrap, splint, or other support. Serious wounds need professional medical attention.

    - Don’t wrap too tightly. A bandage that’s too tight can cut off circulation completely. Swelling at either end of the bandage, numbness or tingling, or discoloration means the bandage is too tight and needs to be adjusted.

    - Leave the fingers and toes unwrapped, exposed, and free to move. This also helps you stay alert to any changes in the injured area like redness or increased swelling, which should be examined by a doctor.

    - Adjust the bandage throughout the day. Unwrap the injured area, reapply the bandage, and secure with clips or tape, taking care that there aren’t any wrinkles or twists in the bandage as you wrap. A smooth wrap applies even pressure to the injured area.


    The pain and swelling associated with a sprain can mask more serious underlying injuries, so know when to get more help.

    - If swelling and pain gets worse, it’s time to seek professional treatment.

    - If, after removing the bandage, the injured area still feels numb or tingles, see your doctor.

    - If a fracture on a ligament sprain is suspected, an X-ray or MRI will allow your doctor to prescribe the right treatment for your injury


    Six Good Reasons to Use Cohesive Bandage as a Strapping Tape

    Cohesive bandage is one of the most useful strapping tapes for sport. It is widely used in other countries, but is less well-known here in the UK where adhesive tapes like EAB or zinc oxide tape are more popular. This is a shame, because cohesive bandage is actually the best choice for many touchline tape jobs. Here are six reasons why you should include cohesive bandage in your taping armoury…

    1. Cohesive bandage does not stick to the skin

    This might sound counter-intuitive; why would you want a strapping tape that doesn’t stick? Here’s the good part: cohesive bandage does not stick to the skin but it DOES stick to itself. When you wrap cohesive bandage over itself, it firmly coheres together (hence the name.) This makes it handy for any tape job that involves wrapping tape around a limb – i.e. most of the tape jobs you will ever need to perform on the touchline or in the changing room.  And because it contains no adhesive, it will not inflict any damage to the skin or hair. One of our Rugby club customers who always buys cohesive bandage instead of adhesive tape puts it like this: ‘The lads don’t like to be waxed.’

    2. It is very stretchy

    Cohesive bandage stretches a lot – up to double its unstretched length. This allows you great flexibility to choose a level of compression to fit the situation. For instance, you could wrap it on with almost no stretch to give light support to a finger bend injury, or stretch it very tightly to provide heavy compression to a severely bleeding wound.

    3. It offers variable levels of support

    Cohesive bandage offers a range of support levels for weak or injured joints – from light to quite firm – depending on how many layers of tape you wrap on. For instance, when wrapping a sprained ankle, you would avoid applying the cohesive bandage with too much stretch because this would create constriction and cause swelling in the foot. However, you can acheive high levels of support without over-constriction just by adding more layers. One or two layers of cohesive bandage, applied without stretch, will provide quite light support. As you wrap over extra layers, the level of support quickly ‘firms up,’ especially if you press the layers together.

    4. It does not ‘give’

    With some other kinds of strapping tape, you often have to apply them more tightly than you want them to be to compensate for the fact they stretch out and loosen off a little during wear. Cohesive bandage, on the other hand, does not have this level of give. It stays exactly as you placed it until it is pulled off or unwrapped.

    5. You can tear it by hand

    Cohesive Bandage can easily be torn along its length and width. Because you don’t have to rumage around for your scissors, you can use it very quickly. Simply tear the tape from one edge in the same way you would tear a piece of paper.

    6. It can be reapplied and reused

    Because cohesive bandage doesn’t rely on adhesive for its sticking properties, it does not lose its stick. So if you don’t get the tape job right the first time you can just unpeel it and try again. This property also means that you can repeatedly reuse the same piece of cohesive bandage. (Although if you’ve used it to wrap a sweaty foot you might not want to…)

    Dressing awkward areas

    Hippocrates appreciated that bandages could be tricky to apply: ‘One ought to be well aware that every bandage has a tendency to fall off towards the part that declines or becomes smaller as, for example, upwards in the case of the head and downwards in the case of the leg.’

    The heels, elbows, ears, head, chin, breast/chest and sacral areas are notoriously difficult to apply dressings to and skilled application is crucial if a bandage is to stay in place for any length of time. However, the introduction of shaped bandages and tapeless dressing retention products has made the task much easier in many cases.

    With a few strategic cuts, different sizes of tubular bandage can be used to secure head, ear or chin dressings (Fig 3). Larger sizes with slits cut for the arms can be used as a vest to secure chest, back or complex breast dressings.

Print this item

  USB Flash Drives: Components, Uses, and Myths Dispelled
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:35 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

USB Flash Drives: Components, Uses, and Myths Dispelled

    USB Flash Drives: Components, Uses, and Myths Dispelled

    The USB flash drive—also known as a jump drive, data stick, or thumb drive—continues to be the most popular portable storage device, with sales estimated to exceed 500 million annually by 2020. Although cloud storage is making headway in the same market spaces, USB drives offer capacity, speed, and size that make them ideal for many uses beyond just storage, including some perhaps unexpected uses as well. This article explores what’s inside a USB flash drive, explores various uses, and dispels common myths.

    A Look Inside

    A typical USB flash drive includes a USB connector, a mass storage controller, one or more flash memory chips, and a crystal oscillator, as well as additional features such as jumpers, LEDs, switches, and unpopulated space.

    The memory capacity and speed of USB drives continue to increase. As of the time of this writing, 512GB USB drives are becoming common, with 1TB capacity also available. The average speed for a highly-ranked 64GB USB 3.0 device is 104MB/s for a write operation and 171MB/s for a read operation.

    Recently, USB drives incorporated the Type-C connector, which provides a yet even smaller and thinner connector compared to the Type-A connector. The Type-C connector has a rounded, symmetric shape that fits into ports easily yet securely, and works either way up (solving the problem that everyone has faced where they have to stick a USB plug in three times before it eventually goes in). Figure 2 shows a USB drive that accommodates both the old and the new sockets.

        How to plug a thin promo USB Drive into a computer?

        Technological advances have allowed a regular USB to become increasingly compact. While the more modern, state-of-the-art USBs are thinner, sleeker and sexier, they have a bit of a learning curve associated with using them. In particular, first time users often are not sure which direction the USB should be facing when plugged in to a USB port. Among other types of promo flash drives, these include our famous promotional Wafer USB Cards, and custom USB Clip.

    Tired of losing your precious pen drives? Tired of spending hours searching for them, only to find them tucked away in some dingy corner? Or tired of having to finally give up and go run to the nearest store for another one? It seems like product designers Claire Pondard and Léa Pereyre have gone through the same dilemma innumerable times because they’ve decided to answer all our USB-related prayers! Their key-shaped intriguing product ‘Saint Antoine’ goes beyond any ordinary USB key. Deemed as common everyday products, due to their nimble size and consistent usage, pen drives are easily misplaced. However, Saint Antoine has been equipped with a crisp UDP chip. Now, what’s so special about this chip? After thorough calculations and necessary trial runs, the chip was customized to fit perfectly between the keys of a laptop/computer keyboard, ensuring it will be tightly fixed to it at all times. The grooved edges and branch-like structure of the pen drive allow it to sneakily merge into the crevices of the keyboard, without destroying the screen once the laptop is shut.

    A Look at the MicroSD Card of the Future: Speed and Capacity meet Reliability

    Manufacturers recently released the largest capacity and fastest microSD cards ever made. The 128 GB cards demonstrate more than a 1,000-fold increase in storage density over the last decade, and the fastest speeds of these microSD cards now rival other high-speed options for wireless computing.

    The SD Association is made up of application developers and micro SD and component manufacturers. The organization determines microSD technology specifications and sets standards and roadmaps for the industry. SD Association President Brian Kumagai explained some of the new features and recent technology trends that help ensure microSD cards remain relevant and offer viable storage for many products and markets in the future.

    Markets driving standardization

    MicroSD cards are predominantly used in smartphones and other mobile devices that have limited space. When microSD cards first arrived on the scene, they quickly became the most popular form factor for mobile devices, and according to Kumagai, that is what drove their success. The microSD market is rapidly growing as more smartphones ship with microSD card slots. Even though the newest phones made by industry giant Apple do not currently accommodate microSD cards, those made by Samsung and many others do.

    Over time, smartphone manufacturers have reduced the amount of on-board memory that ships with smartphones, thus lowering their hardware costs. Consumers have compensated by adding additional storage, often using 8 GB microSD cards. In fact, the bulk of microSD cards sold is used in smartphones, but sales of larger cards (16 and 32 GB) continue to grow. MicroSD card use is also growing in other devices that need small form factors, such as consumer digital imaging and video cameras like the GoPro action camera, night-vision IP security cameras, nanny cameras, automotive in-dash cameras and tablets. MicroSD is still the storage space of choice as devices become smaller and cards gain higher capacity, become faster and exhibit better performance.

    Capacity: It’s all in the flash memory technology

    The fundamental technology in all SD cards and any type of solid-state storage device today is NAND flash memory. Current NAND flash memory chips use floating-gate processes that all manufacturers support. Over the years, decreasing the horizontal line width of the lithography technology used in NAND memory production has created higher density storage capacities. The industry roadmap shrank design-rule dimensions for memory features from 110 nm down to the current size of 19 nm, making smaller NAND chips and allowing microSD cards to use more of them to hold more data. At these thin-line widths, there are only a few electrons of charge inside a single level cell. NAND chips using 16 nm line widths will be coming soon, but Kumagai says the industry is starting to see the limitations of scaling to smaller lithography.

    Within the next year, NAND suppliers are expected to roll out the next generation technology that will go vertical and offer much higher densities than the current technology. The 3-D concept involves grinding individual cells so they are much thinner and stacking more of them so there is more than one cell in the same horizontal plane. “This technology is more difficult to produce. The thinner it is, the more difficult it is to read all the different levels, and error correction becomes needed,” says Kumagai.

    All major NAND suppliers have 3-D technologies in development now. “The microSD card will look the same on the outside and at the interface, but the new 3-D NAND processes may help reliability and have other impacts on the industry if the technology is cheaper,” Kumagai says.

    One way higher reliability processes will change the industry is that it will create new uses for microSD cards. They will be used in high-end automotive or industrial applications such as bar-code readers and scanners that need to store important data.

    Strategies for higher speeds

    While memory manufacturers are increasing the storage capacity by improving NAND technologies, they are also increasing microSD card speed with a combination of hardware and software strategies. One way is through the interface. A new high-speed serial interface (UH-II) handles the speed by having a second row of pins connect to the outside world and a new file system that supports much larger micro XSDHC or SDXC cards that are 32 GB to 2 TB. The newest second-generation ultra-high-speed (UHS2) cards using this interface have much faster read and write times at up to 312 mbps, up from 104 mbps on older generation cards.

    Another area where speed can be gained is in the flash-memory controllers. This component manages the NANDs and does a handshake to the outside world. The controllers in the fastest-speed-class microSD cards use strategies to help both functions, such as using multiple channels and interleaving data.

    What is an SSD?

    A solid state drive (SSD) is an external storage device for your computer that works like a USB flash drive.

    An SSD has no moving parts and is more reliable than the traditional hard drives it's replacing.

    Visit Business Insider's Tech Reference library for more stories.

    How an SSD works

    Like a hard drive, an SSD is used to store large volumes of data whether the system is on or off, for extended periods of time. But unlike hard drives, an SSD has no moving parts, and is more akin to a flash drive.

    Instead of reading and writing data to a spinning platter, an SSD stores data on flash memory chips (sometimes referred to as NAND flash memory). In this way, an SSD is essentially no different than a USB flash drive, or the memory you'd find in a smartphone or tablet.

    In addition to memory chips, an SSD also has a controller chip. The controller is responsible for knowing where data is stored on the device and can find requested data in nanoseconds — almost instantly — which makes SSDs very fast storage devices.

    Difference Between Flash Drive and Pen Drive

    Flash drives and pen drives are two terms that we use interchangeably today. However, that was not the case 15 years ago.

        Flash drives were devices that ran on flash memory. Their sole purpose was to store information and transfer it between the connected computers. The connection takes place through the USB port that is on the hardware.
        Pen USB flash drive, on the other hand, were bulkier than flash drives and had more length to it. Due to their elongated size, they were given the name Pen Drives. They also ran on flash memory and had a USB interface to communicate with the computer.

    Nowadays, the difference in size is no more. All the flash drives and pen drives of today have the same function, the same internals, and the compact form factor. So there is no real distinction you can draw from them. Hence, the pen drives and flash drives of today are essentially the same.

    Next, we will go over the different types of USB flash drives. Please note that they can be categorized according to their uses, or physical characteristics. We attempt to find a balance between the two.

Print this item