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  What Are the Applications of LED Downlights in Homes and Businesses?
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:31 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

What Are the Applications of LED Downlights in Homes and Businesses?

    What Are the Applications of LED Downlights in Homes and Businesses?

    LED downlight, also known as can lights or recessed lights, is embedded into the ceiling to become a seamless accessory in any room. While you might be fond of this sleek look, you may not know all of the factors that contribute to creating perfect lighting in your home or business.

    Where Should I Put LED Downlights?

    LED downlights are a great option for large rooms and/or rooms with low ceilings. Recessed lights blend in with the ceiling, so they will not use as much space as traditional hanging light fixtures.

    Lights can be spaced evenly throughout a room, and since they are recessed, they are discreet enough that you can install more fixtures than you otherwise would.  This means that light can reach all corners of the room.

    How Do I Install an LED Downlight?

    LED downlights require you to insert holes in the ceiling to install a new light fixture, or you can retrofit a preexisting ceiling lighting fixture.

    You will most likely require a new junction box if you do not already have one in the area you want to install the recessed lighting fixtures. A junction box is placed in the ceiling above the light fixture and contains electric wires and cables necessary to connect the light to the main power source of the building.

    Architecture and building regulations vary, so you must check your downlight’s Insulation Contact (IC) rating to ensure that it is compatible with the type of insulation used in your home or business.

    If you still need help, try reading our blog on recessed lighting installation!

    Do I Need a Special Downlight for Showers and Outdoor Areas?

    For outdoor recessed lighting and shower recessed lighting, you want to find light fixtures and bulbs that can withstand dust and water exposure, which is indicated by the Ingress Protection (IP) rating.

    The right IP rating will reduce hazards by shielding your recessed lighting fixture from the elements. For dust and water protection, a rating of IP65 is recommended.

    What Kind of LED Light Bulb Do I Need for My Downlight?

    To avoid a fire hazard, never choose a light bulb with a higher wattage than is recommended for the light fixture. LED light bulbs produce more light (measured in lumens) for less energy (measured in watts) when compared to fluorescent and incandescent bulbs.

    Choosing LED bulbs will allow you to maximize light output and reduce maintenance costs.  LED bulbs also remain cool, which will further protect your home or business from fire.

    Can I Control the Beam Angle of My LED Downlight?

    LED downlights require you to insert holes in the ceiling to install a new light fixture, or you can retrofit a preexisting ceiling lighting fixture.

    You will most likely require a new junction box if you do not already have one in the area you want to install the recessed lighting fixtures. A junction box is placed in the ceiling above the light fixture and contains electric wires and cables necessary to connect the light to the main power source of the building.

    Architecture and building regulations vary, so you must check your downlight’s Insulation Contact (IC) rating to ensure that it is compatible with the type of insulation used in your home or business.

    If you still need help, try reading our blog on recessed lighting installation!

    Do I Need a Special Downlight for Showers and Outdoor Areas?

    For outdoor recessed lighting and shower recessed lighting, you want to find light fixtures and bulbs that can withstand dust and water exposure, which is indicated by the Ingress Protection (IP) rating.

    The right IP rating will reduce hazards by shielding your recessed lighting fixture from the elements. For dust and water protection, a rating of IP65 is recommended.

    What Kind of LED Light Bulb Do I Need for My Downlight?

    To avoid a fire hazard, never choose a light bulb with a higher wattage than is recommended for the light fixture. LED light bulbs produce more light (measured in lumens) for less energy (measured in watts) when compared to fluorescent and incandescent bulbs.

    Choosing LED bulbs will allow you to maximize light output and reduce maintenance costs.  LED bulbs also remain cool, which will further protect your home or business from fire.

    Can I Control the Beam Angle of My LED Downlight?

    The Structural Analysis and Notes of LED Panel Light

    With the development of LED light industry, LED panel light is derived from LED backlight with the characteristics of uniform source of light, no glare and  exquisite structure, which is very popular among us. Shenzhen Hoyol Opto Electronic Co.,Ltd makes some suggestions about the structural design and notes of LED panel light with the hope of helping you.

    The main materials of LED panel light structure are as following

    Aluminum Frame
  Appearance structure and the main structure of LED heat dissipation generally use AL6063, aluminum extrusion mold, low initial investment cost, good surface appearance, good heat dissipation. We participated the show several days ago and got to know that some manufacturers have produced the LED light with casting framework, thus IP grade can be a little higher with better efficiency of light and more attractive appearance, but the initial investment cost is higher.

2 Diffuser plate
  Emitting the uniform light of light guide plate plays a roll in blocking screen dot. Diffuser plate generally uses acrylic diffuser plate or PC 2.0 materials. Acrylic diffuser plate with lower cost but higher light transmission than PC, is poor in anti-aging. The price of PC is slightly higher, but it is good at anti-aging. After installation of the diffuser plate, the screen dot should not be seen and its light transmission rate should be up to 90%. Acrylic light transmission rate is 92% and that of PC is 88% .We can choose the materials of diffuser plate according to different requirement and usually use the acrylic materials.

3 light guide plate
  The side LED light changes the angle of light ray by light refraction of screen dot. Light guide plate is the heart of the LED panel light and its screen dot design is very important. If the screen dot design is not good, the overall lighting effect will be bad. The questions will generally include:1. Bright in the middle and dark in both sides. 2. bright in the bright side and dark in the middle.

4.Rear Cover
Sealing lamp body usually uses AL aluminum. The overall texture is good and it plays a role of dissipating heat.

5.LED lighting source
Generally speaking,3528 is the usual light source. Besides, there are 5630 and 5050 . The luminous efficiency of 5630 and 5050 is not high and the design of their screen dot is difficult but their cost is lower. The lighting effect of 3528 is high and the screen dot is universal. Usually, when just beginning to produce the panel light, you can buy other manufacturers’ light guide plate to use and not be necessary to design the samples. power
Light-driven power- there are two kinds of power modes: first, directly using cross-flow power (this mode has high efficiency and PF value is up to 0.95, so it is cost-effective);second, constant pressure with cross-flow mode (this mode is stable, but with low efficiency and high cost). Generally speaking, the second mode is designed for customers who require certification. Because the lamp is of 24V input voltage and doesn’t need to do safety certificate. It can be shipped to each shelf by using the power supply with safety certificate.

The Common Notes of LED Panel Light during its designing process
1. thermal adhesive needs to be as thin as possible and using thermal adhesive with glue will be better, or the thermal conductivity will be affected;
2. the selection of diffuser plate. Now many manufacturers of LED panel light usually choose smooth diffuser plate with matte board. There is a drawback of this diffuser plate---more static. It will be easy to attract ash and produce bright during the process of production; moreover, the dust will enter the lamp through various ways in a long-term use, which will cause the intense bright. The double diffuser plate was used at the early stage and this kind of diffuser through various ways in a long-term use, which will cause the intense bright. The double diffuser plate was used at the early stage and this kind of diffuser plate has less static with good lighting effect, so it is good to avoid dust in the lamp.
3. The selection of LED light. Try to use the light with high efficiency. Because the side emitting panel light has limitations in heat dissipation and luminous flux output. The heat dissipation will be affected if the power is high and the light efficiency is low.
4. Avoid gluing the reflective paper into the smooth. Because the glue will absorb the light and it is prone to produce light into the smooth side. But a large area of light guide plate needs to glue, or it will have shadow. If the reflective paper is not sticky, the mentioned will happen when the reflective paper is warped in the lamp.


    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology offers bright illumination while using a fraction of the electricity used by incandescent bulbs. You’ve likely been replacing the old bulbs in your light fixtures with LED bulbs over the past few years. That’s still a good idea, but you can also purchase LED ceiling light fixtures that emit light without the need for standard-size LED bulbs.

    The best LED ceiling light for your home depends on the fixture type and what brightness is most suitable for a particular room; for instance, kitchens and bathrooms typically require more intense lighting than family rooms and bedrooms.

    Ahead, learn essential considerations when shopping for an LED ceiling light and find out why these top picks are among the best available.


    Most indoor led ceiling light operate in the same manner as other ceiling lights. After installation, you flip a wall switch to turn the light on and off. Some, but not all, are also compatible with dimmer switches, allowing you to dim the light in the room to conserve even more energy. Still others operate by remote control or come with Bluetooth or Wi-Fi connectivity so you can turn them on and off or program them in advance from a smartphone or other digital device.

    Our Top Picks

    To qualify as a top pick, outdoor led ceiling light should be constructed from quality materials, well designed, reasonably priced, and built to last. The best LED ceiling light for your home will depend on your preferences and where you plan to install it. The following LED lights are suitable for various uses, and one (or more) should provide an energy-saving addition to your home.

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  Why thin wall cup mould so expensive?
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:29 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

Why thin wall cup mould so expensive?

    Why thin wall cup mould so expensive?

    Why thin wall cup mould price is so high? General speaking, thin wall cup mould are using better steel, hot runner, better cooling, better venting and better demolding effectiveness.

    The thin wall cup mould runs on high speed machine which needs withstand high pressure during cup molding, so the mould moving plate and fixed plate thickness are thicker than common mould. There need many interlocks inside the thin wall mould to ensure accuracy and pillar support to avoid deform and eccentric. The plastic airline cup mould need use high hardness steel, high-wear and high-erosion with HRC 55 or above. This means thin wall mould steel cost is higher.

    The hot runner design is larger than the common plastic moulds, and at the same time, need limit the melt residence tome to prevent the resin degradation. When the mould is mult-cavities, the gating balance is much higher than that of common molds. Which means thin wall cup mould hot runner cost is higher.

    Thin-walled products do not withstand the large residual stresses due to heat transfer irregularities like traditional wall thickness parts. In order to ensure the dimensional stability of the product, and to control the shrinkage and warpage within an acceptable range, it is necessary to strengthen the cooling of the mold to ensure the cooling balance. Which means need better cooling design to enhance the cooling effect, adding high conductivity metal inserts where necessary to accelerate heat transfer, like BeCu beryllium copper. The cooling cost is higher than common moulds.


    Due to the short filling time and high injection speed, it is very important to fully exhaust the mold, especially the exhaust in the flow front gathering area, to prevent air trap. The air is usually discharged through mould cores, rams, ribs, studs, and parting surfaces.


    The airline cup walls and ribs are very thin, they are very easy to damage, and the shrinkage in the thickness direction is small, the ribs and other small structures are hard to separate, to avoid sticking, there need use more ejector pins when thin wall injection molding.


    In a word, thin wall mould structure is more complicated than common moulds. That’s why the thin wall cup mould is so expensive.


    Cutlery mould exhaust problem

    In the process of producing cutlery mould, sometimes will have unfilled parts, air bubbles etc, this is caused by air exhaust.


    1. The source of air in the injection cutlery mold.

    (1) The air contained in the gating system and the mould cavity. (2) Some raw materials contain moisture that is not removed by drying, and they are vaporized into water vapor at a high temperature. (3) Air generated by decomposition of some unstable plastics due to excessive temperature during injection molding. (4) Air formed by volatilization or chemical reaction of certain additives in plastic raw materials.

    Poor exhaust of the knife and fork mold will bring a series of hazards to the quality of the plastic parts. The main performance is as follows:

    (1) In the injection molding process, the melt will replace the air in the cavity. If the air is not discharged in time, the melt filling will be difficult, resulting in insufficient injection volume to fill the cavity.

    (2) Excluding the unsatisfactory air will form a high pressure in the cavity and penetrate into the plastic inside under a certain degree of compression, resulting in quality defects such as pores, voids, tissue sparseness, and silver streaks.

    (3) Due to the high compression of the air, the temperature in the cavity rises sharply, which causes decomposition and burning of the surrounding melt, causing local carbonization and charring of the plastic part. It mainly occurs at the junction of the two melts at the gate flange.

    (4) The air is not well removed, so that the melt velocity entering each cavity is different, so flow marks and fusion marks are easily formed, and the mechanical properties of the plastic parts are lowered.

    (5) Due to the obstruction of air in the cavity, the filling speed will be reduced, the molding cycle will be affected, and the taxation efficiency will be reduced.


    Distribution of bubbles in plastic parts


    (1) The bubbles generated by the accumulation of air in the mould cavity of the cutlery spoon are often distributed on the opposite part of the gate.

    (2) Bubbles generated by decomposition or chemical reaction in the plastic raw material are distributed along the thickness of the plastic part.

    (3) The bubbles generated by the vaporization of residual water in the plastic raw material are irregularly distributed on the entire plastic part.


    Injection molding is a process in which a molten plastic is injected into a closed mold having a relatively low temperature through a nozzle under high pressure. Both thermoplastics and thermosets can be injection molded. It can be used to make various box-type packaging buckets and pails, such as various pails boxes and small boxes mould. For box-type packaging containers, China bucket mold manufacturers will consider the following aspects in bucket mould structural design.

    1. The wall thickness of the bucket mould

    The design of the wall thickness mainly considers three aspects: one is thickness; the other is uniformity; the third is gentle transition.

    1 Thickness: The wall thickness of the bucket is mainly determined by its use, plastic type, structure and so on. For thermoplastics, generally not less than 0. 6mm, often choose 2~4mm; for thermosetting plastics, because of its poor fluidity, the thickness is larger, the small pieces are 1. 6~2. 5ram, the large pieces are 3. 2 ~ 8mm, the maximum is no more than 10mm.

    2 Uniformity: The uniformity of wall thickness has a great influence on the quality of the bucket. If the thickness difference of a bucket is too large, the shrinkage will be uneven, causing defects such as deformation and crack. Therefore, the structure should be designed with an equal thickness structure.

    3 Smooth transition: In some buckets, some parts must have different thicknesses due to structural requirements, such as the bucket turning point. At this time, a gentle transition should be adopted to avoid the sudden change of the section.

    2. Improve stiffness of the bucket

    The plastic is relatively flexible, the bucket is made of poor rigidity, and the turnover box type container sometimes has a large load capacity, so various measures for improving the rigidity should be adopted in the structure.

    1 Add reinforcement: Reinforcement can enhance the strength and rigidity of the container. The basic requirements for the ribs are: the number should be more, the wall thickness should be thin, the height should be short, and the slope should be sufficient. The bottom of the rib should be a circular arc transition. The direction of the rib should be consistent with the flow direction to improve the plastic. toughness;

    2 Improve the shape: the box-shaped bucket is mostly rectangular thin-walled parts, which are easy to be deformed. Various reinforcement measures should be taken to slightly extend the four side walls of the bucket to improve the rigidity; it is a strip shape on the side wall to prevent distortion. Enhancement; edge reinforcement at the edge of the bucket to prevent deformation of the mouth; bottom reinforcement at the bottom of the bucket designed in a corrugated, arched shape.

    3 Reasonable support: The bottom area of the box-shaped bucket is large, but it is unreasonable to use the whole bottom surface as the support. Because the bottom is slightly curved, it is not flat. Therefore, the surface support should be changed into a line support or a point support, and the convex side support (ie, the line) Support); raised foot support (ie point support); the height of the protrusion is generally 0. 3 ~ 0. 5mm.

    4 Corner: The corner is the intersection of two faces or three faces. Regardless of the shape of the bucket, the intersection of the faces must be rounded, which can greatly improve the rigidity of the bucket and improve the plastic filling model. Sex, and can disperse stress and reduce deformation.

    3. Demoulding slope

    In order to facilitate the demolding of the molded part, a suitable draft angle must be considered when designing the bucket. The draft is too small, the demoulding is difficult, and the surface of the bucket is damaged; if it is too large, the dimensional accuracy is affected.

    The draft angle varies depending on the shape of the plastic part, the type of plastic, the mold structure, the surface roughness, the molding method, and the like. Generally speaking, the commonly used slope of the plastic part along the demolding direction is 1o~1.5o, and the minimum is not less than 0.5o.


    Household molds are a form of fungus. There are many different types, and they can occur both indoors and outdoors.

    Molds produce spores, which spread by floating around in the air. Mold spores are present in all indoor environments. There is no way to prevent spores, and they can persist in conditions where mold itself cannot grow.

    Mold spores thrive in environments that are moist and warm, so when they land on a damp spot, they begin to grow.

    Molds can grow on a variety of different surfaces, including fabric, paper, wood, glass, and plastic. As they grow, they may digest the material they are growing on.

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  What is Aerogel?
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:27 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

What is Aerogel?

    What is Aerogel?

    Aerogel is a broad term used to talk about an extraordinary group of materials that have been used since the 1960s in space travel, but are now finding uses across a whole range of industries. ‘Aerogel’ is not a specific mineral or material with a set chemical formula-rather, the term is used to encompass all materials with a specific geometrical structure. This structure is an extremely porous, solid foam, with high connectivity between branched structures of a few nanometres across.

    Though aerogel is technically a foam, it can take many different shapes and forms. The majority of aerogel is composed of silica, but carbon, iron oxide, organic polymers, semiconductor nanostructures, gold and copper can also form aerogel. However, within the aerogel structure, very little is solid material, with up to 99.8% of the structure consisting of nothing but air. This unique composition gives aerogel an almost ghostly appearance; hence it is often referred to as ‘frozen smoke’.

    Applications of Aerogel

    As aerogel has such diverse chemical and physical properties, it is no surprise that it also has a wide range of applications. Since the 1960’s, aerogel has been used as the insulating material in spacesuits of NASA astronauts as, despite its wispy appearance, it is extremely strong and can survive take-off conditions easily.

    In the early 21st century, aerogel was employed in a very special role by NASA- to capture space dust. Aerogel is being used in conjunction with the ‘Stardust’ mission, which aims to bring back particles from space from beyond the Moon for the first time. This dust is being primarily collected from the comet ‘Wild 2’. Aerogel is being used to capture this comet dust, as it will be able to trap the small particles without physically altering them. When the particle hits the aerogel, it will be traveling at speeds of up to 6 times that of a rifle bullet, which means most substances would not be able to slow the dust down without heating and thus alteration taking place. With aerogel, however, the dust buries itself into the porous material and is gradually brought to a stop as it loses momentum.


    Silica Aerogel Insulation Blanket are the least dense solid in the world today. Pyrogel Aerogel insulation blanket have low thermal conductivity, high temperature resistance, flame retardancy, low density, and also have certain waterproof effect.

    Silica aerogel insulation blanket is the best thermal insulation blanket material so far, its pore size is lower than the atmospheric pressure under normal pressure, so the air molecules in aerogel gap are in a static state, thus avoiding the convection heat transfer of the air. The very low volume density of the Silica Aerogel Insulation and the bending path of the nanoscale structure also prevent the gas and solid heat conduction, and the “infinitely many” void walls can minimize the thermal radiation. Together, these three functions almost blocked all the ways of heat transfer, which is the adiabatic effect of aerogels to other materials.

    1st advantage is Excellent heat insulation effect

    The heat insulation effect of Silica Aerogel Insulation Felt is 2-5 times that of traditional insulation material, and the theoretical lifetime measured by Arrhenius experiment is 20 years. It’s almost the same life as the building.

    2, reduce the thickness of insulation layer

    The aerogel felt has the same thermal insulation effect and the thickness is only a fraction of the traditional material. After heat preservation, the heat loss is small and the utilization rate of space is high. And at high temperatures, the above performance advantages are more obvious.

    3, hydrophobicity and fire resistance

    Aerogel blanket water repellent, which can effectively prevent moisture from entering pipes and equipment. At the same time, it has the fireproof performance of the building A1, and the three-dimensional network structure of the aerogel avoids the heat insulation effect of other thermal insulation materials in the long-term high temperature use, such as sinter deformation, settlement and so on.

    4. Convenient construction

    The aerogel blanket is light, easy to cut and sewn to adapt to various forms of pipes and equipment for thermal insulation, and the installation time and manpower are less.

    5, save transportation cost

    Aerogels can be used in an environment of -200~650 degrees Celsius, but it is usually used in aerogel insulation blanket. Based on the fiber’s fire resistance temperature, in principle we will control the temperature of 200 degrees Celsius. The hot melt adhesive used for aluminum foil or cloth and insulation blanket will not melt and ensure normal use. Of course, we keep insulation on the exterior wall. Aerogel insulation will also be done when other fixed, plate, screw and so on will be used.

    There will be other conditions in the aerogel insulation blanket in practical applications, but the effectiveness will always come in and out of the ideal, but Gallic aerogel insulation blanket for all users, designed in all aspects, such as the hydrophilic and hydrophobicity of aerogel insulation blanket, can be done.

    Uses of Fiberglass Fabrics

    When it comes to composite construction or boat building, many people turn to fiberglass fabrics to get the job done right. Whether used for reinforcement, coating or laminating, professionals and DIY enthusiasts all over the world are quickly recognizing the benefits of this versatile composite. If you are new to composite materials or considering using fiberglass for a project, you came to the perfect place. In this guide, we will explore the properties and uses of fiberglass fabrics to help you better understand this convenient and cost-effective material.

[[image1,left/right]]Fundamentals of Fiberglass Fabric
With so many composites to choose from, understanding what each textile is and means for your project can be difficult or even daunting. Fortunately, the composite experts are here to help. Fiberglass cloth consists of bulk, chopped fibers or continuous strands of different kinds of glass. Whether in bulk form or a continuous strand, the combined physical strength of those glass fibers exceeds the properties that each of them has individually. This fiber-reinforced composite is typically flattened into sheets or randomly arranged and woven into fabrics for use in all sorts of applications. Fiberglass fabric is lightweight, strong, and less brittle than other composite materials. One of the most prized properties of fiberglass is its ability to be molded into various complicated shapes.

Applications and Uses of Fiberglass Fabrics
Across a wide range of industries, professionals look for materials with high-temperature insulation to ensure an effective thermal barrier for industrial gaskets. Because fiberglass offers high thermal insulation, it has become a prized and preferred material for protecting machinery. In our research, we discovered all sorts of ways this material is used!

    Production of NBR

    At first, we have the raw material. The raw material is yellow. After the manufacturing process, the material can be orange or red-tinted. At the end of the procedure, we have hot NBR Foam!

    The hot NBR rubber has radical generating activators & added catalyst to polymerization vessels.

    There is no major difference between the production of hot NBR & cold NBR. In fact, the cold NBR or hot NBR Foam is distinguishable with the number of branches.

    In the procedure of monomer recovery, the unwanted solids were removed by latex which is sent through numbers of filters where it stabilized with “antioxidant”.

    You can understand the difference between NBR rubber & any other kind of foam-like EVA Foam immediately.

    In fact, when you get a piece of NBR foam from suppliers, you will find out the difference between the NBR foam & any other kind of foams like EVA foam , etc.

    After the production of PVC Nitrile, we have a very smooth & soft outer skin on both sides.

    This surface has a resilient touch and good flexibility. You can even use this resilient surface for some applications like yoga.

    The cells of the foam are clear on the surface sheets.

    The final product of NBR is a black piece of foam. You can also work with cutting & fabrication machinery like foam lamination (PSA) & Die-Cutting system.

    In the whole procedure of NBR production, you will be able to transform the NBR to different kinds of foam products like gaskets, mats, tapes & seals.

    The “Hong Kong Foam” company can produce customized products according to customer requirements.

    The NBR  has opened cell structure & closed cell structure that the closed cell is more popular & more efficient for producing the different kind of foams.

    Mineral Wool Production

    To make mineral wool insulation, basalt and industrial slag are melted in a 3,000° F furnace. (Slag is a by-product of steel production that usually ends up in landfills.) Next, the super-heated liquid is exposed to a high-pressure stream of air and then spun into long fiber strands. The strands are compressed into thick, dense mats and then cut into batts of insulation.

    Now that you have a basic understanding of fiberglass and mineral wool, let’s take a look at the differences between these two popular types of insulation.

    Fiberglass vs. Mineral Wool: How They Stack Up

    R-Value: The thermal resistance of insulation is measured by what’s commonly known as the R-value, and the higher the R-value, the better. Fiberglass has an R-value of approximately 2.2 to 2.7 per inch of thickness. Mineral wool has a slightly higher R-value, ranging between 3.0 and 3.3 per inch.

    Size: Fiberglass insulation is available in a wider range of sizes and types than mineral wool. Mineral wool insulation is typically only available in unfaced batts.

    Sustainability: Mineral wool is composed of 70 percent or more recycled content. Fiberglass insulation typically contains 20 to 30 percent recycled content.

    Cost: Fiberglass insulation costs 25 to 50 percent less than mineral wool. Fiberglass insulation for a 2×6 wall costs between 57 cents and 72 cents per square foot. Mineral wool insulation for the same wall runs about $1 to $1.10 per square foot.

    Density: Mineral wool insulation has superior sound-deadening properties. It has a density of 1.7 pounds per cubic foot, as compared to 0.5 to 1.0 for fiberglass. Because of its density, mineral wool is hard to compress. Fiberglass, on the other hand, will lose some of its insulating value if it’s compressed too tightly.

    Weight: Fiberglass is lightweight and easy to carry, but the batts are rather limp and can be challenging to set into place. Mineral wool is heavier than fiberglass, but the batts are also stiffer, so they don’t bend or flop over as easily.

    Water Resistance: Mineral wool insulation is hydrophobic, meaning it’s highly resistant to moisture and water. Since it doesn’t absorb moisture, mineral wool doesn’t promote rot, corrosion, fungi, mold, mildew or bacterial growth. If fiberglass insulation gets wet, it becomes soggy, and its insulating value drops significantly.

    Loose-Fill: Loose-fill fiberglass insulation provides a quick, easy and economical way to insulate attic floors and wall cavities. Loose-fill mineral wool does exist, but it’s difficult to find.

    Installation: Mineral wool comes in dense, firm batts that are friction-fit into place; no stapling required. Fiberglass batts must be secured with staples or wire. To cut fiberglass insulation, compress it flat with a board or metal straightedge, then slice it with a utility knife. Use a serrated bread knife or woodcutting handsaw to cut mineral wool insulation. It’s recommended that you wear a dust mask when cutting and handling any type of insulation, including fiberglass and mineral wool.

    Fire Resistance: Mineral wool is extremely fire resistant and can be used as a firestop. Fiberglass insulation is noncombustible, but not nearly as fire resistant as mineral wool.


    Glass wool is a kind of fibrous material made from the melted glass raw materials or cullet. It consists of two types: loose wool and superfine wool. The fiber of the loose wool is 50 ~ 150 mm in length and 12 × 10- 3 mm in diameter. By contrast, the fiber of the superfine wool is much thinner in diameter, normally under 4 × 10- 3 mm. And it is also called superfine glass wool.

    The loose wool can be used to make glass wool blanket and glass wool board. The superfine glass wool can be used to make common superfine glass blanket, glass wool board, alkali free superfine glass blanket, hyperoxic silica superfine glass blanket, and it is also used to preserve heat in the exterior-protected construction and the pipelines.

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  A Brief History of Men's Fashion
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:25 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

A Brief History of Men's Fashion

    A Brief History of Men's Fashion

            We’ve said it time and time again, men's wear is ruled by history and tradition. Every person in menswear (designer, stylist, editor, etc) has taken inspiration from the past at one time or another. And no era has been overlooked.
            Therefore, as we continue to explore the foundations of personal style, I thought we’d take a quick look back at the last hundred-or-so years in men’s fashion. Perhaps this will provide a little insight or context as to how menswear shifts, and more importantly, how we can make informed decisions when it comes to buying clothing and developing personal style.


            As the nineteenth century came to an end men were slowly shaking-off the Victorian influence which still had them wearing tophats, frock coats, and pocket watches while carrying walking sticks. This may seem like an elaborate and restrictive way to dress, but it was a big step in the right direction considering the Georgian period that proceeded it had men wearing feathers, panty hose, and high heels. And you thought you were a “dandy”.

            1900S: TALL, LONG & LEAN

            As we moved into the 1900s men’s clothing was predominantly utilitarian and rather unimaginative. The long, lean, and athletic silhouette of the late 1890s persisted, and tall, stiff collars characterize the period. Three-piece suits consisting of a sack coat with matching waistcoat and trousers were worn, as were matching coat and waistcoat with contrasting trousers, or matching coat and trousers with contrasting waistcoat. Sounds familiar, right? Trousers were shorter than before, often had “turn-ups” or “cuffs“, and were creased front and back using the newly-invented trouser press.

    After the war (which introduced numerous classic menswear designs which are still used today, like trench coats and cargos), business started to pick-up and Americans had more money. More money allowed them to travel more and broaden their horizons culturally and aesthetically. Many crossed the Atlantic to England and France. Naturally they returned with suitcases full of the latest fashions being worn overseas.

    Of all the countries, England had the most influence on American menswear. In the 1920s American college students began putting their own spin on pieces being worn at the legendary Oxford University, including button-down shirts, natural-shouldered jackets, regimental ties, and colorful argyle socks. Furthermore, the Prince of Wales, who later became the Duke of Windsor, was the world’s most important and influential menswear figure. Through newsreels, newspapers, and magazines the elegant Prince became the first international “style icon” and became widely known and renowned for his impeccable taste in clothing. He was a legitimate trendsetter for every day people and it was the first time in history that clothing advertisers would use a celebrity face to sell clothing, shamelessly plugging their items “as worn by the Prince”.


    If you're confused by whether a silk scarf is better than a cotton scarf, then you will want to be able to weight the pros and cons of silk and cotton scarves. In this post, you will find our list of benefits and drawbacks of wearing a silk scarf over a cotton scarf.


    First of all, silk will not irritate your skin. Silk is much more delicate than cotton. The roughness of cotton can sometimes cause or worsen pimples.

    This is in part due to the fact that silk is hydrophobic, meaning it does not hold water well. Cotton absorbs the moisture it is exposed to. That is why wearing cotton can cause acne, as cotton clothing retains oils that creates pimples. But moisture rolls right off of silk.



    Another benefit of silk is that silk is hypoallergenic. Silk resists dust, mold, and fungus. You are unlikely to have an allergic reaction to wearing silk.


    Last but not least, silk fabrics shine in a way cotton cannot match. This makes silk an excellent choice for showing brilliant colours and artistic patterns.

    How To Wear A Square Scarf

    1)The Basic Fold:

    There are many ways to tie a scarf, this one is one of the most popular ways all of them. This fold is the starting point of three easy ways of putting on the square scarf. They are not only simple for everyday use but also look effortless with any casual outfits.

            Lay down your square scarf on a surface
            Folds two sides to form triangles and lay as they just touch the tips
            Fold each of the triangles to create a rectangle and align as they reach side by side.
            Fold from the half to pack it up, as shown in the last photo.

    2) Simple Loop around Neck:

    Place a basic folded scarf around your neck with the two corners facing down. Take one of the corners and twist it around your neck. Adjust the length of each side.

    3) Simple Neck Tie Knot:

    Place a basic folded scarf around your neck with the two corners facing down. Take the edges and make a knot, take one of the sides and face it up to hide the knot behind the tie.

    How to Choose Yoga Clothes

    Refining a downward dog or trying a new balance pose at the yoga studio is challenging enough on its own, but it’s made even harder when you’re fiddling with sagging, too tight or uncomfortable yoga clothes. That’s why it’s important to purchase clothes that are breathable, flexible and comfortable.

    Your yoga vest purchases will depend largely on personal preference, as well as the style of yoga you plan to practice. But at a high level, here’s what to wear to yoga (see below for a more detailed discussion of these yoga basics):

    Breathable, flexible bottoms like yoga pants or shorts

    A breathable, narrow- or form-fitting top that won’t hang over your head when you’re upside down.

    For women, a sports bra or built-in shelf bra that offers enough support for the type of yoga you’re practicing

    A comfortable, warm top layer for end-of-class savasana (corpse pose) or after class when you’ve cooled down

    What to Look For in Yoga Clothing

    Many yoga clothes are made with polyester-nylon-spandex blends, and for good reason—these fabrics offer the right balance of comfort, breathability and flexibility:

            Comfort: There’s nothing worse than practicing yoga in an uncomfortable piece of clothing. As you tune into your body, you don’t want to focus on itchy seams and tags, saggy or too tight waistbands, or fabric that binds and chafes.
            Breathability: Depending on the type of yoga you practice, you may sweat a little or a lot. Particularly if you’re sweating a lot, it’s important to wear breathable and moisture-wicking materials to keep you cool and comfortable. Tank tops, shirts with cutouts and yoga slim pants with mesh pockets will all improve breathability and venting. Avoid cotton, which holds moisture, makes you feel hot and damp, then leaves you prone to chafing or getting chilled when class winds down.
            Flexibility: Yoga involves bending, stretching, binding, lunging, reaching and rolling. Your clothes need to be able to keep up with these movements, which means they’ll probably be made with at least 15 percent spandex.


    There are few things as empowering as sexy lingerie. Throw on a pair of lacy knickers and a tulle bra and sit back as your confidence immediately skyrockets. It doesn’t matter if you’re in a relationship, dating (in a pandemic!) or single this Valentine's Day, because we all now know that lingerie – even the sexiest – is actually all about you.

    Sure, our undies are well hidden under a tracksuit right now... but knowing that a sexy lingerie set is working its magic under your oversized hoodie and joggers is not only a confidence-booster – but a mood lifter, too. And there's no better time than the most romantic weekend of the year to invest. After all, how much more together does your life feel when you actually manage to put on a pair of knickers and a bra that match?

    While there will always be space in our underwear drawer (and hearts) for a big Bridget Jones-style knicker and wireless bra, a cute new bra and brief set is a season-less purchase, rendering it a wise buy always and something you can absolutely justify investing in. That pair of designer shoes you’ve been saving for might be out of style come next winter, but some ladies sexy lingerie? Timeless. Granted, everyone has different preferences when it comes to underwear, so it's lucky that there are tonnes of lingerie brands out there, each offering sexy designs in their own right.

    We thought we'd save you the legwork and hunt down the very best sexy lingerie that money can buy for Valentine's Day (you should also check out our dedicated guide to Valentine's Day lingerie if you haven't already), from the best lingerie brands in the business. We’ve got balconette bras, suspenders, high-waist knickers, wireless bras, matching sets and all the sheer/lacy/tulle fabric. We’ve even thrown in a few one-pieces for good measure.

    High up on our wish list right now is this Carine Gilson teal and lace silk satin bra (with sexy matching briefs) to boot which have both been crafted in her Brussels atelier. There's also this plum lace body from the name in sexy lingerie, Agent Provocateur - which is not only currently half price, but in stock in ALL sizes. A true lingerie miracle.

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  The Strength of Aluminum
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:22 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

The Strength of Aluminum

    The Strength of Aluminum

    If you’re like many people, when you hear the word “aluminum”, you think of everyday convenience items that, while incredibly useful, don’t exactly convey a high-strength image. And it’s true – aluminum is a highly versatile metal – meaning it can be processed to be thin, lightweight, bendable and even crushable by human hands.

    What’s less well-understood is that aluminum can also be some of the toughest stuff on earth. Often, the metal is used in applications where high-strength and durability are the most important considerations – from cars and trucks to building material to military vehicles. You likely trust aluminum to keep you safe and secure dozens of times a day without even knowing it.

    Take-Away Facts

    The Key to Auto Safety: Automakers are increasingly turning to aluminum as part of the multi-material mix to increase vehicle fuel efficiency while maintaining strength and safety. Every aluminum-intensive vehicle ever crash tested by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has earned a 5-star safety rating.

    High-Strength Aluminum is Everywhere: High-strength aluminum alloys are used in hundreds of everyday applications where strength and durability are essential – from planes to trains, buses to trucks – even some of the world’s tallest skyscrapers.

    Extreme Applications: Aluminum is also used by the U.S. military, NASA and others to build vehicles and structures capable of thriving in some of the harshest conditions imaginable.

    The Chemistry of Strength: By adding elements like silicon, magnesium and lithium to pure aluminum and through special processing techniques, aluminum can be engineered to be as strong if not stronger than some steel.

    Aluminum is about one-third the weight of steel, meaning parts can be made thicker and stronger while still reducing weight in vehicles and other applications. Depending on the alloy and processing technique used, pound for pound aluminum can be forged to be just as strong if not stronger than some steel.
Aluminum is already the second-most-used material by automakers, so your car or truck likely has a lot of aluminum in it right now, protecting you from hazards on the road. Engineers know how to work with aluminum to make parts that perform as well or better than steel parts – all while reducing vehicle weight. Aluminum is highly effective at absorbing crash energy, protecting passengers in the event of an accident. And lighter aluminum vehicles improve performance.  Better handling and shorter stopping distances help drivers avoid accidents to begin with.

    Aluminum is used for window frames and curtain wall in some of the world’s tallest skyscrapers – maybe even the office building you’re sitting in right now. This versatile metal is used to make planes, trains, buses, trucks – even ocean liners!

    In short, every day, people around the world trust the strength of aluminum – whether they know it or not.

    In addition to “everyday” applications, aluminum’s strength and durability is also trusted for some of the most extreme uses imaginable. Designers know that high-strength aluminum alloys can handle some of the harshest conditions on earth – and beyond.

    U.S. Army: The U.S. Army has trusted aluminum for decades to help protect our troops. The high-strength, crash-absorbent metal is used in the Humvee (HMMWV), HEMTT and Bradley Fighting Vehicle to reduce weight, resist rust and be reliable under tough conditions. Aluminum armor plate is even used to resist explosives and other attacks. 

    NASA: It’s no exaggeration to say that modern space travel would not be possible without aluminum. The metal was widely used in the space shuttle program and NASA chose a high-strength aluminum-lithium alloy to make the new Orion spacecraft, which will someday take humans to Mars.

    U.S. Air Force: After replacing older wood, steel, wire and fiber aircraft during WWII, high-strength aluminum alloys have become among the most commonly used materials to make military aircraft. Indeed, the airframe for the famed fighter jet – the F-16 – is 80% aluminum. 

    Shark Cages: Even when facing one of nature’s fiercest predators – the strength of aluminum is trusted. Aluminum is the popular choice for shark cages because the metal is more buoyant than alternatives and won’t corrode in salt water. Aluminum bar is more than strong enough to protect divers from direct attacks from Great White and other sharks.     

    T Slot Aluminum Extrusion

    Aluminum extrusion t- slot is extremely useful for a wide range of framing applications. T-slots can be used for any number of structural applications, and require no welding or special tools for assembly. Frames built from aluminum instead of steel also benefit from the aesthetics of the metal, which needs no finishing and is attractive in its natural state.

    Hydro Extrusion is the world’s premier soft alloy aluminum extruder, offering the industry’s most comprehensive product line. Our aluminum products are available in standard and custom shapes (solid, semi-hollow and hollows), in a complete range of structural angles, channels, tees, zees, H-beams and I-beams, and seamless and structural aluminum pipe and tube, and are preferred by premium machinists throughout North America.

    T-slots allow for modular construction and can be used to construct any imaginable project. Long, narrow T-shaped slots travel along the length of all four sides of the extrusion, making it possible to design an unlimited number of framing configurations and position fasteners, panels and other components or accessories.

    Some profiles have one slot per side, while wider profiles can accommodate two, three or four slots on each side. Still other profiles feature slots on only one or two sides, leaving the other sides smooth for exceptionally clean installations. T-slots are also available in smooth and grooved profiles and a variety of colors.

    Aluminum Extrusion 15 Series T-slot are ideal for framing in many different industries and can accommodate nearly any load. Common applications include workstations, machine bases and enclosures, medical manufacturing, material handling carts, stairs and platforms, to name a few. T-slots help create safe, comfortable and attractive workplace environments, and can be used to attach panels, wire mesh, screens, etc. They can also be used to hold wiring (similar to conduit), or to hang containers or tools.

    We offer complete solutions for aluminum extrusions required by the automotive, mass transit, bridge decking, and solar/renewable energy industries, as well as green applications for the building & construction market. T-slots, specifically, provide a simple, fast and cost-effective way to build structures of any kind. They are also easy to take apart and reassemble for another purpose.

    Hydro Extrusion offers an unparalleled variety of product choices to meet the needs of our customers’ challenging project requirements. We have 20+ locations and more than 60 extrusion presses across North America, and offer the industry’s broadest product capabilities in press sizes and tonnages (direct and indirect extrusion), alloy selection, circle sizes, profile types and “green” billet. Whether you need aluminum extrusion 20 series t-slot or any other extruded shape or stock, our talented team will work with you to provide effective solutions.

    Overview of Pipes and Tubes

    A Pipe is a round tubular for the flow of fluids and gasses, defined by a nominal pipe size providing a rough representation of the pipe conveyance capacity; a Tube is a round, rectangular, square or oval hollow segment determined by outside diameter and wall thickness, represented in inches or millimeters.

    The options may seem overwhelming when selecting a tubing type; both aluminum and stainless steel come in a variety of alloys and tempers, each with their own physical and mechanical properties. That metal has specific general properties to all of its alloys.

    Why Aluminum?

    Aluminum is noteworthy for its low density and its property to resist corrosion through the passivation process. Aluminum and its alloys are essential to the aerospace industry and are significant in the automotive and building sectors, such as fa?ade design and window frames. The most important components in aluminum are the oxides and sulfates.

    Aluminum tubing extends from consumer items, recreational merchandise and machine parts and automotive and manufacturing across a wide range of industrial applications. Suppliers respect aluminum for its strength, because it is only one percent of the steel weight. Because of this versatile blend of strength and flexibility several structures profit from the effective use of aluminum tubing. Aluminum tubing, given its lightweight, provides a greater volume of tubing per weight than steel. Many products benefit from the use of a lighter tubing material, particularly those needing a mobility degree such as wheelchairs and outdoor furnishings.

    For the tubing and pipe the most common aluminum alloys are 2024, 3003, 5052, 6061, 7075. Aluminum exceptionally well absorbs aluminum heat making tubing which is a great candidate for temperature control applications such as refrigerators, solar power and air conditioning systems. The lightweight and strength of the aluminum tubing often results from items such as hydraulic systems, fuel lines, braces, and frames. Aluminum is a component of many different alloys. Aluminum forms solid alloys, with several differences of magnesium and silicon. Because of its increased weldability and outstanding tolerance to corrosion, manufacturers use the aluminum square tube alloy 6061 for many medium-to high-strength applications. It is also the aluminum tube type which is least expensive to use.

    Where are Aluminum Tubes and Pipes used?

    Aluminum tube and pipe are mostly used for various industrial or building uses, but the use of aluminum pipe and the aluminum tube is also easily embraced by homeowners and auto manufacturers and has been modified for common household use.

    In the demand to interior furnishings aluminum pipes are also used. Things are generally constructed of wrought iron from canopy beds and bedside tables. Aluminum tubes are a lightweight choice which gives a futuristic feel to the room. To threaded forms of tubing a variety of fasteners are given. Aluminum Pipe is a machined part widely used for all types of industrial projects where lightweight and corrosion resistance are the primary concern. Printed in both 6061-T6 and 6063-T6, 6063 has a smoother texture than 6061 and is more bendable.

    1. What is aluminium tube?

    Usually, the aluminium tube refers to a hollow pipe made of pure aluminium or aluminium alloy. And the aluminium tube shape is determined by its outer diameter and wall thickness. There is circular, rectangular, square or elliptical, in inches or millimetres distinguish. Aluminium pipes have extensive in the field of aerospace and commercial manufacturing, including healthcare products, entertainment products, and machine parts. The weight of aluminium is one-third of steel, and the manufacturer welcomes aluminium due to its durability. The aluminium tube can be effectively applied to multiple fields due to various features, such as intensity and flexibility.

    2. What are the characteristics of the aluminium tube?


    Due to the lightweight of the aluminium tube, the aluminium tube per unit of weight is more than the steel pipe. Many products benefit from products that use lighter pipes, especially those that require a certain degree of activity, such as wheelchairs and outdoor furniture.


    Heavy Corrosion Resistance

    The aluminium tube is more difficult to lose gloss than other metal tubes. It is easier to apply to the decoration of paints and other decorations, thereby enhancing its aesthetic attraction.


    High thermal conductivity

    Aluminium has excellent thermal conductivity, making the aluminium tube an ideal choice for relying on temperature control product(including refrigerators, solar and air conditioning systems). And the lightweight and durability of aluminium pipes benefits the hydraulic system, fuel line, framework and rack.



    The toughness of the aluminium tube is very strong, which can be processed into any available shape. So it is often used as a connecting tool.


    3. Type of aluminium tube

    Aluminium has several different alloys. Aluminium mix with magnesium and silicon have a solid alloy. It also means that different alloy combinations can form different aluminium tube types. Their functions are different. For example, manufacturers often use aluminium squares alloys 6061 for many medium and high-intensity applications because it increases weldability and excellent corrosion resistance. 6061 Aluminium tube is also easy to anode oxidation, which makes it very suitable for heat treatment. It is also the cheapest aluminium tube alloy.

    The manufacturer also uses aluminium alloy tube 6063 to achieve an extremely smooth surface finish. Since the aluminium alloy 6063 has only half of the aluminium alloy 6061, it often appears in valued rather than intensity applications. This material still has many anodized capacities as the aluminium alloy 6061.


    When using metal parts in manufacturing and construction, heating strength is often a key factor. A metal tube is no exception. In most cases, the two manufacturing tasks required for aluminium tubes are bending and joining.


    For the bending tube, consider three main factors:


    Certain aluminium alloys, such as 3xxx, 5xxx, and 6xxx series, have higher formability than other aluminium alloys, making it a good material that is curved. Typically, a higher intensive alloy also has a lower strength.


    Thickness and bending radius

    Aluminium is like other metals, "processing harden" during the bending process, which means aluminium will become more and more robust when formed. However, if the radius is too small in the thickness of the tube, the material is excessively machined, more likely to fail.



    The elongation percentage is a way to describe the difference between metal yield strength and its limit tensile strength. Yield strength is a point that aluminium alloy can be bent and no longer restore its original shape. On the other hand, the tensile strength is the maximum stress that can be applied to aluminium before aluminium cracking. The larger the difference between these strengths, the higher the formability of the alloy.

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  Is It Safe to Use Aluminum Foil in Cooking?
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:19 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

Is It Safe to Use Aluminum Foil in Cooking?

    Is It Safe to Use Aluminum Foil in Cooking?

            Aluminum strip and foil products are common household products that’s often used in cooking.
            Some claim that using aluminum foil in cooking can cause aluminum to seep into your food and put your health at risk.
            However, others say it’s entirely safe to use.
            This article explores the risks associated with using aluminum foil and determines whether or not it is acceptable for everyday use.

            What Is Aluminum Foil?
            Aluminum foil, or tin foil, is a paper-thin, shiny sheet of aluminum metal. It’s made by rolling large slabs of aluminum until they are less than 0.2 mm thick.
            It’s used industrially for a variety of purposes, including packing, insulation and transportation. It’s also widely available in grocery stores for household use.
            At home, people use aluminum foil for food storage, to cover baking surfaces and to wrap foods, such as meats, to prevent them from losing moisture while cooking.
            People may also use aluminum foil to wrap and protect more delicate foods, like vegetables, when grilling them.
            Lastly, it can be used to line grill trays to keep things tidy and for scrubbing pans or grill grates to remove stubborn stains and residue.

        There Are Small Amounts of Aluminum in Food

        Aluminum is one of the most abundant metals on earth.
        In its natural state, it is bound to other elements like phosphate and sulfate in soil, rocks and clay.
        However, it’s also found in small amounts in the air, water and in your food.
        In fact, it’s naturally occurring in most foods, including fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, grains and dairy products.
        Some foods, such as tea leaves, mushrooms, spinach and radishes, are also more likely to absorb and accumulate aluminum than other foods.
        Additionally, some of the aluminum you eat comes from processed food additives, such as preservatives, coloring agents, anti-caking agents and thickeners.
        Note that commercially produced foods containing food additives may contain more aluminum than home-cooked foods.
        The actual amount of aluminum present in the food you eat depends largely on the following factors:
                Absorption: How readily a food absorbs and holds on to aluminum
                Soil: The aluminum content of the soil the food was grown in
                Packaging: If the food has been packaged and stored in aluminum packaging
                Additives: Whether the food has had certain additives added during processing
        Aluminum is also ingested through medications that have a high aluminum content, like antacids.
        Regardless, the aluminum content of food and medication isn’t considered to be a problem, as only a tiny amount of the aluminum you ingest is actually absorbed.
        The rest is passed in your feces. Furthermore, in healthy people, absorbed aluminum is later excreted in your urine.
        Generally, the small amount of aluminum you ingest daily is considered safe.

        Cooking With Aluminum Foil May Increase the Aluminum Content of Foods

        Most of your aluminum intake comes from food.
        However, studies show that single zero aluminum foil, cooking utensils and containers can leach aluminum into your food.
        This means that cooking with aluminum foil may increase the aluminum content of your diet. The amount of aluminum that passes into your food when cooking with aluminum foil is affected by a number of things, such as:
                Temperature: Cooking at higher temperatures
                Foods: Cooking with acidic foods, such as tomatoes, cabbage and rhubarb
                Certain ingredients: Using salts and spices in your cooking
        However, the amount that permeates your food when cooking can vary.
        For example, one study found that cooking red meat in double zero aluminum foil could increase its aluminum content by between 89% and 378%.
        Such studies have caused concern that the regular use of aluminum foil in cooking could be harmful to your health. However, there is currently no strong evidence linking the use of aluminum foil with an increased risk of disease.

        Potential Health Risks of Too Much Aluminum

        The day-to-day exposure to aluminum that you have through your food and cooking is considered safe.
        This is because healthy people can efficiently excrete the small amounts of aluminum the body absorbs.
        Nevertheless, dietary aluminum has been suggested as a potential factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
        Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological condition caused by a loss of brain cells. People with the condition experience memory loss and a reduction in brain function.
        The cause of Alzheimer’s is unknown, but it is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, which can damage the brain over time.
        High levels of aluminum have been found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.
        However, as there is no link between people with a high intake of aluminum due to medications, such as antacids, and Alzheimer’s, it’s unclear if dietary aluminum is truly a cause of the disease.
        It is possible that exposure to very high levels of dietary aluminum may contribute to the development of brain diseases like Alzheimer’s.
        But the exact role aluminum plays in the development and progression of Alzheimer’s, if any, is yet to be determined.
        In addition to its potential role in brain disease, a handful of studies have suggested that dietary aluminum could be an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
        Despite some test-tube and animal studies that allude to correlation, no studies have yet found a definitive link between aluminum intake and IBD.

        How to Minimize Your Exposure to Aluminum When Cooking

        It’s impossible to completely remove aluminum from your diet, but you can work to minimize it.
        The World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have agreed that levels below 2 mg per 2.2 pounds (1 kg) body weight per week are unlikely to cause health problems.
        The European Food Safety Authority uses a more conservative estimate of 1 mg per 2.2 pounds (1 kg) body weight per week.
        However, it’s assumed that most people consume much less than this Here are some steps you can take to minimize unnecessary exposure to aluminum when cooking:
                Avoid high-heat cooking: Cook your foods at lower temperatures when possible.
                Use less aluminum foil: Reduce your use of aluminum foil for cooking, especially if cooking with acidic foods, like tomatoes or lemons.
                Use non-aluminum utensils: Use non-aluminum utensils to cook your food, such as glass or porcelain dishes and utensils.
                Avoid mixing aluminum foil and acidic foods: Avoid exposing aluminum foil or cookware to acidic food, such as tomato sauce or rhubarb.
        Additionally, as commercially processed foods can be packaged in aluminum or contain food additives that contain it, they may have higher levels of aluminum than their homemade equivalents.
        Thus, eating mostly home-cooked foods and reducing your intake of commercially processed foods may help to reduce your aluminum intake.

        Should You Stop Using Aluminum Foil?

        Container aluminum foil isn’t considered dangerous, but it can increase the aluminum content of your diet by a small amount.
        If you are concerned about the amount of aluminum in your diet, you may want to stop cooking with aluminum foil.
        However, the amount of aluminum that foil contributes to your diet is likely insignificant.
        As you are probably eating far below the amount of aluminum that is considered safe, removing aluminum foil from your cooking shouldn’t be necessary. Aluminum strip casting is a key contributor to weight saving possibilities, particularly in the automotive industry and although strip casting has been established for over 50 years, it continues to increase in popularity.Casting speeds can be limited by several factors including the type of alloy being cast and the desired sheet thickness required

        In the automotive industry, decreasing weight is one of the most important challenges which needs to be solved and using aluminum alloys instead of the more traditional steels enables a great opportunity to decrease weight substantially of the overall vehicle.
        However, sheets of aluminum alloy used for automobile body work are very expensive. Therefore, in order to make use of aluminum alloys cost effective it is necessary to develop a low cost aluminum alloy sheet which can handle the intended application requirements.
        The development of continuous casters for aluminum products has been well documented over the past 50 years. Processes are classified according to the thickness that can be produced using either thin slab or strip casting. Thin slab and thin strip casting bypasses the semi-finished product stage, reducing reheating and eliminating a number of rolling steps, thus providing for considerable energy savings and significant improvements in productivity.

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  What is an Isolation Gown?
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:06 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

What is an Isolation Gown?

    What is an Isolation Gown?

    Isolation gowns are examples of medical protective equipment used in health care settings. They are used to protect the wearer from the spread of infection or illness if the wearer comes in contact with potentially infectious liquid and solid material. They may also be used to help prevent the isolation gown wearer from transferring microorganisms that could harm vulnerable patients, such as those with weakened immune systems. Medical Gowns are one part of an overall infection-control strategy.

A few of the many terms that have been used to refer to gowns intended for use in health care settings, include surgical gowns, isolation gowns, surgical isolation gowns, nonsurgical gowns, procedural gowns, and operating room gowns. (Source: “Medical Gowns | FDA”. 3/11/2020.

    What is the difference between isolation gown and surgical gown?

    Disposable isolation gowns are used by medical personnel to avoid exposure to blood, body fluids, and other infectious materials, or to protect patients from infection. Disposable gowns are not suitable in a surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid bodily or other hazardous fluids may be expected.

    In 2004, the FDA recognized the consensus standard American National Standards Institute/Association of the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (ANSI/AAMI) PB70:2003, “Liquid barrier performance and classification of protective apparel and drapes intended for use in health care facilities.” New terminology in the standard describes the barrier protection levels of gowns and other protective apparel intended for use in health care facilities and specifies test methods and performance results necessary to verify and validate that the gown provides the newly defined levels of protection:

? Level 1 Gowns: Minimal risk, to be used, for example, during basic care, standard isolation, cover gown for visitors, or in a standard medical unit

    > Provides a slight barrier to small amounts of fluid penetration
> Single test of water impacting the surface of the gown material is conducted to assess barrier protection performance.

? Level 2 Gowns: Low risk, to be used, for example, during blood draw, suturing, in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or a pathology lab

    > Provides a barrier to larger amounts of fluid penetration through splatter and some fluid exposure through soaking
> Two tests are conducted to assess barrier protection performance:
Water impacting the surface of the gown material
Pressurizing the material

? Level 3 Gowns: Moderate risk, to be used, for example, during arterial blood draw, inserting an Intravenous (IV) line, in the Emergency Room, or for trauma cases

? Level 4 Gowns: High risk, to be used, for example, during long, fluid intense procedures, surgery, when pathogen resistance is needed or infectious diseases are suspected (non-airborne)

    > Prevents all fluid penetration for up to 1 hour
> May prevent VIRUS penetration for up to 1 hour
> In addition to the other tests conducted under levels 1-3, barrier level performance is tested with a simulated blood containing a virus. If no virus is found at the end of the test, the gown passes.

    (Source: “Medical Gowns | FDA”. 3/11/2020.

    The are many names for an isolation gown and there is not standardize product names. Other common names include: protective surgical gown,barrier gowns, medical gowns, ppe gowns, reusable gowns, disposable gowns, non-surgical gowns

    Choosing Which Isolation Gown to Use

    When you are selecting PPE Gowns, consider three key things. First is the type of anticipated exposure. This is determined by the type of anticipated exposure, such as touch, splashes or sprays, or large volumes of blood or body fluids that might penetrate the clothing. PPE selection, in particular the combination of PPE, also is determined by the category of isolation precautions a patient is on. Second, and very much linked to the first, is the durability and appropriateness of the PPE for the task. This will affect, for example, whether a gown or apron is selected for PPE, or, if a isolation gown is selected, whether it needs to be fluid resistant, fluid proof, or neither. Third is fit. (Source: “Medical Gowns | FDA”. 3/11/2020. : Please see: CDC Guidance for the Selection and use of PPE in Healthcare Settings: )

    What material are hospital gowns made of?

    Hospital gowns are made of fabric that can withstand repeated laundering in hot water, usually cotton. They are usually fastened in the back with twill tape ties. Disposable hospital gowns may be made of paper or thin plastic, with paper or plastic ties.


    Gauze is a fabric that has many different uses, medical gauze is specifically used in wound care. Gauze pads, bandage rolls, and other medical dressings all take advantage of the highly absorbent quality of gauze. It is a versatile product and can be used by itself or it can be saturated with petroleum like in Xeroform. When it comes to medical gauze you will have a lot of choices so it is best to ask your doctor for a recommendation. If you are using medical gauze to treat an open wound then you should make sure you are using a sterile gauze. It is important that wounds are kept clean and the best way to do that is to use sterile medical supplies. Switching from regular nitrile gloves and using sterile gloves instead can keep a sterile zone for your wound. Your medical supply store should have a selection of types of gauze, such as sterile gauze pads, bandage rolls, nitrile gloves, and wound cleansers. All of these can help you avoid infection.

    Woven Gauze

    Woven gauze has a loose open weave. The loose nature of the weave allows the fluid from the wound to be absorbed into the fibers. The open weave helps the wound fluid to pass through the gauze and be absorbed by other more absorbent dressings such as a gauze pads or sponges. Woven gauze cannot be cut, the cotton material, because it is woven, will start to unravel. The debris or lint can get lost in the wound which will delay healing. Woven gauze is a general gauze that is used as a secondary dressing. It should not be used directly against a wound because it can dry the wound out which will make dressing removal painful and it would damage any newly healed tissues.

    Non Woven Gauze

    Non woven gauze is made from fibers that resemble a weave but they are not woven, they are pressed together and condensed. This tight pattern helps non-woven gauze absorb more wound fluid, which really means that it increases the over-all absorbency. Non woven gauze has less loose lint than traditional woven gauze which means fewer bits and pieces of gauze left behind in your wound. Those small pieces of fluff and lint can cause problems because any type of debris in your wound can delay healing. Non woven fibers are usually made with polyester or rayon and sometimes they are blends of both. This gauze tends to be more durable and more comfortable than woven gauze pads. Non woven gauze can be used as a primary dressing.

        Medical Shoe Covers & Booties

        Medical boot cover helps protect shoes and flooring. In medical settings, spills can occur unexpectedly. To prevent unsightly stains or unsanitary conditions, hospital shoe covers can play an essential role. Our hospital booties come from Hermitage Medical, Mckesson, Dukal, Medline, AlbaHealth, Moore Medical and other quality manufacturers of medical supplies. These medical booties are a one-size-fits-all shoe covering. To keep staff safe, take a look at Vitality Medical's Protective Gear.
        What Are Surgical Shoe Covers Made From?
        Surgical Shoe Covers are made of non-woven chlorinated polyethylene material. The non-woven characteristic creates a nonstatic fabric so the surgical booties won't pick up dust, dirt, or microbes. The fabric is also fluid-resistant and slip-resistant so that it's safe to wear.
        Why Is It Important To Wear Shoe Covers In A Hospital Setting?
        Hospital booties prevent dirt and, most importantly, bacteria from being tracked into sanitary environments. The non-static hospital shoe covers are just one part of infection control to prevent cross-contamination as hospital staff members enter and exit an operating room or the Intensive Care Unit.
        Reusable isolation gowns
        Recently, the Wyoming Medical Center in Casper put out a call for volunteer sewers of non-surgical gowns along with instructions for their production, a list of materials, and a location from which full-size patterns could be obtained. It is an effort being conducted at the local level. Instructions call for the use of Kona cotton, a heavier weight cotton cloth. Each gown takes about an hour to sew. Cotton makes the gown washable and reusable. Washable isolation gowns can also made from polyester and polyester-cotton blends. Similar calls are being made in Florida, in Montana, and, presumably, in many places in between. In addition to the gowns, the med center has asked for volunteers to sew reusable face masks and head coverings.
        Disposable isolation gowns
        Disposable gowns are commonly made from nonwoven materials such as polypropylene, polyester, or polyethylene. Rather than sewn, the garments are typically assembled using thermal, chemical, or mechanical seaming. A number of companies are gearing up for the temporary effort of making these garments to augment the short supply. It helps if a company is directly involved in manufacturing and at least peripherally involved in producing biologically oriented products.
        For instance, Petoskey Plastics, based in northern Michigan, has retooled an automotive seat cover production line to begin producing gowns to the tune of 10,000 units per day. The company regularly manufactures blood and viral barrier protective films and biohazard bags, so it had enough knowledge and experience to go from concept to production in short order.
        Another Michigan company, Saginaw-based Duro-Last, has applied its expertise in fabricating PVC roofing systems to the problem of manufacturing PVC isolation gowns at several of its manufacturing facilities around the country. Larger companies are stepping up too: L.L. Bean, Brooks Bros., Jockey – the list lengthens with each passing day.
        Instructions appear on the internet for constructing disposable isolation gowns using Tyvek and double-sided tape. Tyvek is routinely used for sterilizable medical device packaging. These makeshift gowns look as if they could be cut and taped together quite quickly. It is a case where a little leeway and some ingenuity produces perhaps not an optimum product but one that, under the circumstances, is better than nothing.
        Indianapolis-based Community Health Network has posted a video and step-by-step instructions for making a Tyvek isolation gown. An 8 ft. by 7 ft. sheet of Tyvek is folded over on itself and the gown pattern transferred to it. After cutting out the Tyvek?, the material is unfolded. Sleeves are taped together with double-sided tape and then reinforced along the outer seams with single-sided tape.

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  The history of the shopping trolley
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 01:03 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

The history of the shopping trolley

    The history of the shopping trolley


    A trip to the supermarket wouldn’t be the same without the shopping trolley, a utilitarian piece of design that allows us to buy more than we can physically carry. Colin Bisset takes a look at the history of an invention that changed consumerism forever.


    The shopping trolley is one of the most successful marketing inventions of the 20th century. It came into existence in 1937 as a by-product of a new kind of shopping experience popularised in the 1920s: the supermarket.

    The trolley was the idea of American supermarket owner Sylvan Goldman, who dreamed it up as a way of encouraging shoppers to buy more items in his Humpty Dumpty chain of stores.

    The frame was inspired by a folding chair and held two wire shopping baskets, one above the other, doubling the quantity of goods that could be carried. They were unpopular at first because they reminded women of prams and men considered them effeminate. To counteract this Goldman hired male and female models who spent their days pushing trolleys around his stores, leading to their gradual acceptance.

    The next big innovation was made by Orla Watson in 1946. He came up with a design with a hinged rear panel which allowed trolleys to be easily pushed together for storage. The Telescope Cart was patented in 1949 and remains the model for most trolleys today. The 1950s saw massive growth of supermarket and mall-style shopping with huge parking areas, making a trolley an almost an obligatory shopping aid. The density of customer traffic made compact storage essential. In 1954, the further refinement of a fold-down seat for toddlers meant that parents were free to focus on the shelves.

    Increasing store size has since created demand for larger shopping trolleys to cope with increased sales, and the arrival of self-scanning equipment attached to the trolley handle has simplified the checkout process in some places. In 2013, a jet-propelled shopping trolley reached 70 kilometres per hour in Britain, but the idea has thankfully not been taken up by supermarket chains.

    The Edgemar shopping mall in Santa Monica, California, which was designed in the late 1980s by local architect Frank Gehry, has been home to a towering Christmas tree made entirely from shopping trolleys every year since 1995. Created by artist Anthony Schmidt, each tree is over 10 metres high. Although they would appear to be a most appropriate symbol for Christmas consumerism, Schmidt adds that they also remind us of those in the world whose possessions would fill only a single shopping trolley. The first tree's silvery shimmer was, he says, inspired by a friend's mother who had platinum hair.

    While the wonky-wheeled trolley has long been a visual gag in film, the abandoned trolley is more often a symbol of urban waste, and many are dumped by roadsides or in waterways. More than one million trolleys are manufactured each year, adding to the millions already in circulation. Most supermarkets now make considerable efforts to retain their property, adding coin-deposit mechanisms to ensure their return in areas of high theft as well as wheels that lock when a trolley is pushed over a magnetic strip set at a mall entrance.

    The scale of the shopping trolley has also grown and the supermarket model is now used for everything from furniture shops to pile-it-high discount stores. For some, Sunday wouldn't be Sunday without pushing a trolley around a hardware store or a wine warehouse. Thanks to the increased kinetic energy implicit in the larger size and weight, there have been reports of people being crushed, sometimes fatally, by trolleys. However, many supermarkets today also offer scaled-down versions so that small children will learn shopping habits early. Sylvan Goldman would certainly have approved of that.

    Why Don't People Return Their Shopping Carts?

    While some supermarkets are better than others, it's probably not unusual to find a few stray shopping carts littering the parking lot to the dismay of shoppers who may think that a parking spot is open, only to find that it's actually being used by a shopping cart. It seems like a basic courtesy to others: you get a cart at the supermarket, you use it to get your groceries and bring them to your vehicle, and then you return it for others to use. And yet, it's not uncommon for many people to ignore the cart receptacle entirely and leave their carts next to their cars or parked haphazardly on medians. During peak hours, it can mean bedlam. Where does this disregard come from?

    Some supermarkets have tried to make this relatively easy: they have cart receptacles throughout the parking lot, a cart attendant to bring the carts back to the store, and some may even rely on a cart "rental" system where you pay for the cart and are reimbursed when it's returned. In the instances where there is no rental system, people may leave their carts stranded for some of the following reasons:

            The receptacle is too far from where they've parked their car.
            They have a child whom they do not want to leave unattended.
            The weather is bad.
            They have a disability that prohibitive to easy movement.
            The perception that it's someone else's job to collect the carts.
            They're leaving the carts for someone else to easily pick up and use.

    Similarly, there are five categories of cart users:

            Returners. These people always return their carts to the receptacle regardless of how far away they've parked or what the weather is like. They feel a sense of obligation and/or feel badly for the people responsible for collecting the carts.
            Never Returners. People who never return their carts. They believe it's someone else's job to get the carts or the supermarket's responsibility, and show little regard for where the carts are left.
            Convenience Returners. People who will return their carts if they parked close to the receptacle, or if they see a cart attendant.
            Pressure Returners. People who will return their carts only if the cart attendant is present or if the adjacent car's owner is present, which means they don't have an easy avenue for abandoning their carts.
            Child-Driven Returners. These are people with children who view it as a game to return carts, often riding them back to the receptacle or pushing them into the stacked lines.

    Social norms fall into two general categories. There are injunctive norms, which drive our responses based on our perception of how others will interpret our actions. This means that we're inclined to act in certain ways if we think people will think well or think poorly of us. And there are descriptive norms, where our responses are driven by contextual clues. This means we're apt to mimic behaviors of others—so what we see or hear or smell suggests the appropriate/accepted response or behavior that we should display.

    Shopping cart, bag or basket?

    There is no golden rule.

    In any case, since we are talking about an e-commerce website, all you want to do is to reduce the friction in the flow and reduce the cognitive load of the user. Everything has to look familiar and work as expected. Or to put it in UX terms, the system must meet the user’s mental model.

    But why is it that sometimes you see websites or apps using different terms for the same functionality, and which is the right one for each case?

    The user‘s mental model.

    Users form their mental models based on the physical world and the websites and apps they use in their daily lives. So they expect to see a similar functionality to the one that they are used to from their previous experiences, this can happen by using a metaphor to make it easy for the users to think of a concept they are already familiar with. In our case, shopping in a store. So the scenario would be something like this:

            Walking into a store.
            Adding the products to a cart.
            One last chance to think if we got everything.
            Go to the registry and pay.

    If you think about the physical world, things make kind of sense. You use a home shopping trolley for larger objects, for example, electric appliances — a basket for smaller ones like groceries, and a shopping trolley bag for the smallest items, like clothes.

    But why don’t we use the same patterns for digital experiences?

    Finding a balance between innovation and familiarity.

    What’s wrong with the ‘Cart’ anyways? Well, it just doesn’t fit with every kind of store. Some stores don’t use carts in their physical stores, so it might not make sense to use them in the digital one. Plus, it is also a bit ugly as an icon if you want a rather artistic opinion.

    For some reason, the ‘Cart’ became the norm, and it seems that it is tough to break out of the norms. It was Amazon and Zappos in the late 90s that familiarized the idea of the shopping cart and users didn’t seem to have trouble understanding what ‘Cart’ means.The word ‘Cart’ has become the default word when it comes to e-commerce.

    In fact, in some cases, websites that use a bag icon in their menu, use the term ‘Add to cart’ in the call to actions just because users are more familiar with the term. But that doesn’t mean that every website should use this. It could confuse the users even more, and you should avoid it.

    Many fashion e-commerce websites broke out of that norm. Sites like Macy’s use the ‘Bag’ for years and many other websites followed that example. Nowadays the term ‘Bag’ has become the new norm at least for websites that focus on apparel and fashion. Even a tech company like Apple has shifted to the use of the term ‘Bag’ on their website.

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  The Only Guide To A Drill Rod You’ll Ever Need
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 12:56 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

The Only Guide To A Drill Rod You’ll Ever Need

    The Only Guide To A Drill Rod You’ll Ever Need

    A drill rod is a common term in the machinery and manufacturing industries. You can use drill rods to manufacture various tools such as cutters, hot-work tools, machine parts, punches, files, and more. But, do we know how to choose the right drill rod for our needs?

    Drill rods differentiate in regards to toughness, durability, temperature resistance, and applications. With so many different material grades and types to choose from, how do we ensure we choose the correct drill rod?

    That’s where we come in – this is the only guide you’ll ever need to drill rods, their uses, and applications. This guide is suitable for complete beginners as well as professionals in the industry.

    Let’s see some of the most frequently asked questions on the subject of drill rods!

    What Is a Drill Rod?

    Simply put, a drill rod is a lengthier steel piece of easy-to-mold tool steel that you can use for machining to produce different tools and parts.

    Typically, drill rods are round. However, there are some square ones, such as the square kellys you’ll see below. Drill rods are generally soft enough to be machined into their final form.

    Drill rods need to have a clean and smooth surface. To manufacture them in this way, we usually use precision grinding.

    What Is a Drill Rod Used For?

    Drill rods have many different applications. Producers usually use drill rods for manufacturing drilling bits, shafts, dowel pins, reamers, punches, taps, hammers, files, cutting tools, hot-work tools, etc.

    Different grades of drill rods are best suited for specific uses. For example:

    W1 is suitable for cold-work tools, hand-held tools, cutting tools, punches, dies, etc.;

    O1 grade is best for punches, dies, and gages;

    A2 and D2 can be suitable for hobs, rolls, knurls, coining dies, punches, dies, etc.;

    S7 gade is perfect for knock-out pins, drift pins, stamps, grippers, track tools, river sets, mandrels, circular pipe cutters, and more;

    H13 (or V44) is suitable for hot-work tools, plastic molds, die-casting tools, core pins, ejector pins, and more;

    Types of Drill Rods According to the Manufacturing Process

    According to the manufacturing process they go through, there are three different types of drill rods: air-hardening, water-hardening, and oil-hardening. Each of these drill rods has various uses and applications. Let’s explain something about each of these different types of manufacturing processes and drill rods & casing.


    We’re starting from the toughest category of tool steel – the air-hardened drill rod. Air-hardened steel has more alloy, and this is what makes it so hard and resistant. After heat treatment, you can leave air-hardening types of drill rods to harden in still air.

    Air-hardening drill rods have superior machinability and wear resistance when compared to oil or water-hardening rods. Furthermore, air-hardening is safer than water or oil-hardening in regards to distortion and dimensional stability.


    Oil-hardening drill rods are second in line when it comes to their hardness and durability. Although oil-hardening rods have less alloy than air-hardening rods, they’re still rich enough to withstand welding. On top of that, oil-hardening steel is suitable for machining.

    If you’re not sure what the term “oil-hardening” means, it implies heating the rod until it’s glowing red and then dipping it into a pool of warm oil. With this, the steel becomes hard and ready for machining or welding.


    And finally, we have the water-hardening drill rods, which portray the lowest alloy content but are excellent for machining. However, they’re deficient in alloy content, which signifies that they’re not structurally suitable for welding purposes.

    To harden a drill rod with water, we first heat the steel until it becomes glowing red, and then we plunge it into a pool of water to cool off. Once the metal is hard, it can be easily machined but not welded. You can usually use water-hardening drill rods for the manufacturing of files or hammers.

    Types of Drill Rods According to Different Threads

    We can classify drill rods into three different types according to different threads: ordinary drilling rigs, square kelly rods, and heavy-weight drill pipes.

    The Ordinary Drill Rod

    We can easily recognize the ordinary drill rod since it’s the central or basic part of the drill stem. At the top, the ordinary drill rod connects to the square kelly (explained below), and at the bottom, it’s attached to the drill collar.

    In borehole digging, the function of the ordinary drill rod is to deepen the hole, transmit torque, and move the drill up and down.

    Drill Bit Material Types & Coating - Types of Drill Bits

                                            1. Carbon Steel Drill Bit
                                            – Low carbon steel: this is the cheapest option for making a drill bit, due to their poor tempers, low carbon steel drill bits are usually used for drilling softwood and some plastics, and require to be sharpened often to extend the lifespan.
                                            – High carbon steel: a better material than low carbon steel, high carbon steel drill bit can keep their shape and effectiveness longer, so it can be used to cut stronger materials, like hardwood and soft metals.
                                            2. High Speed Steel Drill Bit
                                            Compared with carbon steel bits, high-speed steel drill bit is a more popular choice on the market now. HSS is a special type of carbon steel, maintaining structural integrity while bearing high temperature is a marking advantage of the HSS drill bit, what’s more, high speed steel bit has higher wear resistance and hardness, it can also work well at a normal temperature. HSS drill bits are suitable for most of the wood and metal drilling process, including CNC drilling. Titanium nitride and other types of coatings can be applied on the HSS tool to increase lubricity and reduce friction.
                                            3. Titanium Coated Drill Bit
                                            Titanium is not only a popular aerospace and medical material, but also a versatile drill bit coating material, which can make the drill bit last longer. Due to its high corrosion resistance, good fatigue limit, heat limit, relatively light weight, and longer service life, titanium coated drill bit is perfect for repetitive mass production of drilling into steel, iron, wood, plastic and various surfaces, it allows a faster RPM and shorter cycle time. The most common types of titanium coatings are Titanium Nitride (TiN), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAN) and Titanium Carbon Nitride (TiCN). TiAN and TiCN are considered superior to TiN as they can increase the lifespan to a considerable degree. The drawback of drill bit coating is that once the tooling becomes blunt, it can’t be sharpened to avoid the coating material being worn away.
                                            4. Cobalt Drill Bit
                                            Cobalt is another type of coating for the drill, cobalt drill bit is used for cutting materials that HSS bit can’t, such as stainless steel and other difficult materials, it can retain hardness at much higher temperatures than HSS and not affected by extremely high heat. But cobalt is a too brittle coating.
                                            5. Carbide-Tipped Drill Bit
                                            Carbide-Tipped drill bit is very hard, easy to dissipate heat and can hold an edge longer than other type bits. Similar to the cobalt drill bit, it’s very brittle as well and maybe broken up in improper use. Carbide bits are applicable for drilling fiberglass reinforced plastic and nonferrous heavy metals.


    Reaming shells are used to maintain the diameter of the bore hole and to make sure other drilling equipment does not get stuck down the hole. The outside surface of the reaming shell has natural and synthetic diamonds embedded in a resistant matrix.

    Reaming shells come in 6, 10 and 18 inches. How do you know when do you use each size?

    6 inch reaming shells

    The 6 inch reaming shell is the standard that is used for every kind of rock hardness or ground condition and is the minimum reamer requirement to provide minimum stabilization. Since the 6’’ has only one diamond pad, the vibrations from the rods and outer tube can be conducted easily and make deviation more likely.

    When drilling is done in difficult ground conditions, such as swelling clay, a shorter reamer is a good choice as it can get through the ground without catching.


    10 inch reaming shells

    You need to consider a longer reaming shell once deviation becomes an issue. A 10’ inch reamer is a good compromise between the 6 inch and the 18 inch. The 10 inch has two diamond pads so it will provide better stabilization. A 10 inch reamer is a good choice for underground drilling where adequate space can be a challenge. It will do the job in shallower holes requiring stabilization and where an 18 inch reamer may be just a bit too much.

    10’’ is also mainly used with 3m core barrels, so you can still pull your 3m inner tube + extension in one shot.


    18 inch reaming shells

    You should switch to an extended reaming shell when you have to keep your hole on direction and avoid deviation. The more diamond pads that you have on the reaming shell, the more control you will have on deviation and on hole diameter. The 18 inch gives you 4 pads. The front diamond pads will help you stabilize the core barrel and control the direction while the pads in the back will help maintain the diameter of the hole.

    You can use an 18 inch reaming shell on the front end and a diamond type locking coupling  on the back to make sure you have good stabilization of the core barrel. You can also use two 18 inch reamers when you have a longer core barrel (6 meters or more). It can act as a core barrel extension allowing you to get more core in the tube at one time.

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  Are Woven Polypropylene Bags Waterproof?
Posted by: P890J - 09-29-2021, 12:46 AM - Forum: FPS and Shooters - No Replies

Are Woven Polypropylene Bags Waterproof?

    Are Woven Polypropylene Bags Waterproof?

    Are pp woven bags waterproof? As far as the woven bag itself is concerned, because the woven bag is made of warp and weft tapes, there is only overlap between the tapes, which does not have sealing property. Therefore, the liquid will be left through the gap between the tapes, so the woven bag itself is not waterproof.

However, due to the special requirements of chemical industry, cement, chemical fertilizer, sugar and other industries for packaging, a considerable number of plastic woven bags must have the function of waterproof and sealing. At present, there are mainly two types of waterproof and sealed woven bags produced and applied in the market: one is the ordinary separate combined packaging bag with outer woven bag and inside liner inserted or stitched bag. The other is the composite woven bag coated with a layer of plastic film on the PP woven cloth, which will include two types also, either polypropylene coated woven bag or pp woven laminated bag.

The production equipment and process of the first kind of separated inner lining membrane woven bag are relatively simple, the equipment investment is low, and the application is very wide. The inner and outer bags are separated. The inner bag is blown film bag, which can be divided into LDPE and HDPE. The outer bag is ordinary PP woven bag, and the length and width of the inner bag are slightly larger than the outer bag. When loading materials, the inner and outer bags are uneven and easy to be damaged. In the early years, the inner and outer bags of the inner lining membrane bag and the outer bag need to be set together manually, and the inner and outer bags at the mouth of the bag need to be aligned and sewed, so the production efficiency is low, the waste of manpower is large, and the continuous and efficient production cannot be carried out. A skilled operator can only complete about 1000 bags by hand every day, and only about 300 bags can be sewn by hinge sewing machine every day. Nowadays, with the improvement of all-in-one machine, there are many machinery manufacturers in China that can produce all-in-one machines for bag cutting, sewing and lining. The technology has been widely used and tends to be mature, greatly improving the production efficiency.

    Another kind of Coated plastic woven bag production must go through the coating process, using the extrusion coating machine to coat a layer of plastic film with a thickness of about 0.02 ~ 0.04mm on the outside of the woven pp cloth. Or at the same time, to use the coating material as the bonding medium, and then composite a layer of BOPP film on the surface, can achieve better waterproof effect, it was named BOPP pp woven laminated bag. When doing coating, the temperature of the extruded film is about 300 ℃, and the newly extruded film is combined with the braid by a pair of cooling rollers. However, such high temperature reduces the strength of the cloth surface, reduces the elasticity, increases the brittleness of the bag surface, and makes the bag easier to be damaged in the falling tests.


    Valve bags are packaging bags filled by machines. They come in plastic or paper. Here at Western Packaging, we are a wholesale manufacturer who offers the paper version, with many options. The three main things to consider are size, closure type, and coatings.


    Paper valve bags come in a large range of sizes. We offer small to very large paper valve bags and multiple sizes in between. It is important to verify which sizes your valve bag machine handles.


    Once the size is determined, the type of closure is determined. All valve bags are automatically closed. The specific method of how this closing happens falls into three categories.


    The first and most common is self-sealing. These valve bags use the pressure of the contents to close and seal the bag.


    Alternatively, some bags can be sealed by heat. This may be a better option for the product and requires a machine and set up capable of this method.


    The third type of closure is much less common. Bags can be sealed ultrasonically. These valve bags are only used in very specific and limited industries. They require clean and sterile environments and very special machinery.


    Once the size and type of closure are decided, coatings in and on the bags is decided. The options are extensive. Western Packaging offers all the most common, and some uncommon, coatings available. The specific coating(s) depends on the product and the package’s method of storage, shipment, and display.

    There is a large variety of coatings available. The coating options vary based on if the coating is going to be placed on the inside or outside of the bag. Some products may benefit from a coating on both.


    The inside coating is most important when the product contained in the bag is food or non-food products. In these situations, a food-safe coating must be applied to the inside of the bag. This coating helps ensure the contents remain safe for consumption, and also maintains the freshness. Interior coatings also help minimize moisture entering the product and/or keep the product from seeping out. These are very important features for many products.

    Some outside coatings provide the same or similar benefits. Coatings can be applied to block moisture, block contamination of the interior from the outside, or make the bag easier to handle. While protection of the contents of the packaging is most important, ease of storage is also important. Outside coatings can be used to minimize friction when bags rub together and therefore help to minimize bag damage and loss of product. A simple coating can also help the filled bag maintain its shape.


    Valve bagging is when a bag is filled using a specialized machine. The machine uses a spout placed in or near the opening of the bag. A measured amount is placed in each bag. This can be done in a fully automated or semi-automated manner. This ensures consistency in quantity and minimizes lost product.

    The benefits of these machines are numerous and span multiple industries. The biggest benefit is the volume of bags that can be filled and closed per hour. The output is significantly higher than if done by an employee. This increase in output translates to higher profit by filling orders more quickly. Businesses converting to this method often find the cost of the machine is quickly covered and a return on investment is recognized very soon.

    Plastic, Paper or Cotton: Which Shopping Bag is Best?

    Plastic bags

    Plastic bags were invented in 1967, but only became widely used in stores in the 1970s. The most commonly found thin plastic shopping bag given out at cash registers are usually made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), but some are made of low-density polyethylene plastic (LDPE).

    The energy embodied in plastic bags comes initially from the mining of the raw materials needed to make them—natural gas and petroleum—whose extraction requires a lot of energy. The raw materials must then be refined, which requires yet more energy. Once at a processing facility, the raw materials are treated and undergo polymerization to create the building blocks of plastic. These tiny granules of polyethylene resin can be mixed with recycled polyethylene chips. They are then transported by truck, train or ship to facilities where, under high heat, an extruder shapes the plastic into a thin film. The film is flattened, then cut into pieces. Next, it is sent to manufacturers to be made into bags. The plastic bags are then packaged and transported around the world to vendors. While polyethylene can be reprocessed and used to make new plastic bags, most plastic bags are only used once or twice before they end up being incinerated or discarded in landfills. The Wall Street Journal estimated that Americans use and dispose of 100 billion plastic bags each year; and the EPA found that less than five percent are recycled.

    A 2014 study done for the Progressive Bag Alliance, which represents the U.S. plastic bag manufacturing and recycling industry, compared grocery bags made from polyethylene (HDPE), compostable plastic, and paper with 30 percent recycled fibers. It found that the HDPE bags ultimately used less fuel and water, and produced less greenhouse gas gases, acid rain emissions, and solid waste than the other two. The study, which did not consider litter, was peer-reviewed by Michael Overcash, then a professor of chemical engineering at North Carolina State University. Because the carrying capacity of a plastic and a paper bag are not the same, the study used the carrying capacity of 1,000 paper bags as its baseline and compared their impacts to the impacts of 1,500 plastic bags. The plastic bags used 14.9kg of fossil fuels for manufacturing compared to 23.2kg for paper bags. Plastic bags produced 7kg of municipal solid waste compared to 33.9kg for paper, and greenhouse gas emissions were equivalent to 0.04 tons of CO2 compared to paper’s 0.08 tons. Plastic bags used 58 gallons of fresh water, while paper used 1,004 gallons. Energy use totaled 763 megajoules for plastic, and 2,622 megajoules for paper.

    Sulfur dioxide, a type of sulfur oxide, and nitrogen oxide emitted from coal-fired power plants that produce the energy for processing bags contribute to acid rain. The plastic bag produced 50.5 grams of sulfur oxides compared to 579 grams for the paper bag; and 45.4 grams of nitrogen oxides, compared to 264 grams for paper.

    A 2011 U.K. study compared bags made of HDPE, LDPE, non-woven polypropylene, a biopolymer made from a starch polyester, paper and cotton. It assessed the impacts in nine categories: global warming potential, depletion of resources such as fossil fuels, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, fresh water toxicity, marine toxicity, terrestrial toxicity and smog creation. It found that HDPE bags had the lowest environmental impacts of the lightweight bags in eight of the nine categories because it was the lightest bag of the group.

    Paper bags

    Paper bags are made from a renewable resource and are biodegradable. In the U.S., over 10 billion paper bags are consumed each year, requiring the felling of 14 million trees.

    Once the trees are cut down, the logs are moved to a mill where they can wait up to three years until they dry out. Once ready, bark is stripped off and the wood is chipped into one-inch cubes that are subjected to high heat and pressure. They are then mixed with limestone and sulfurous acid until the combination becomes pulp. The pulp is washed with fresh water and bleach then pressed into paper, which is cut, printed, packaged and shipped. As a result of the heavy use of toxic chemicals in the process, paper is responsible for 70 times more air pollution and 50 times more water pollution than plastic bag production according to a Washington Post analysis, resulting in more toxicity to humans and the environment than HDPE bags. And while 66 percent of paper and paperboard are recycled, the recycling process requires additional chemicals to remove the ink and return the paper to pulp, which can add to paper’s environmental impact.

    Cotton totes

    Cotton bags are made from a renewable resource and are biodegradable. They are also strong and durable so they can be reused multiple times.

    Cotton first needs to be harvested, then cotton bolls go through the ginning process, which separates the cotton from stems and leaves. Only 33 percent of the harvested cotton is usable. The cotton is then baled and shipped to cotton mills to be fluffed up, cleaned, flattened and spun. The cotton threads are woven into fabric, which then undergoes a chemical washing process and bleaching, after which it can also be dyed and printed. Spinning, weaving and other manufacturing processes are energy intensive. Washing, bleaching, dyeing, printing and other processes use large amounts of water and electricity.

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